bone health

  • Green Vibrance

    Why should I supplement with a superfood supplement?

    It has often been said our best source of vitamins, nutrients and supplements is from the food we eat. If you are eating a properly balanced organic diet with a lot of raw fruits and vegetables then you are way ahead of the curve and probably feeling pretty healthy. But it is not always easy to get the proper nutrients we need on a daily basis for many reasons. Too busy to shop often for fresh organic fruits and vegetables, limited access to the broad range of foodstuffs we need for optimum health and many other reasons.

    According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), only 11% of Americans meet the USDA’s guidelines for eating 5-9 servings of fresh fruit and vegetables daily. CDC data indicates:

    • 93% of Americans don’t enough vitamin E
    • 56% don’t get enough magnesium
    • 31% don’t get enough vitamin C
    • 12% don’t get enough zinc
    • Many seniors lack B vitamins
    • Many people are low on vitamin K, calcium, and potassium

    In addition to our lack of eating enough fresh fruits and vegetables every day the same foodstuffs have been losing nutritional content over the decades.

    In 2004, a University of Texas research team headed by biochemist Donald Davis, Ph.D., analyzed a USDA report on 43 common garden fruits and vegetables and found that almost half of the substances containing minerals important to good health had lost some nutritional value. Dr. Davis suggests one of the reasons for this decline is the result of the faster methods major agro-farm companies employed to grow high-yield crops to meet consumer demand.

    So what is one to do?

    Step 1: Go organic. One of the reasons many people do not go organic is because of price. Take bananas for example. I see non-organic bananas for sale at 79 cents per pound sitting beside organic bananas that are 99 cents per pound and most shoppers opt for the less expensive. Why? They do not realize that the organic bananas have more nutrients and significantly less pesticides as they are just looking at price. But the fact of the matter is you are getting significantly more nutrients while avoiding toxic pesticides and herbicides. And of course you are avoiding GMOs. By the way GMO bananas are currently in testing and are on their way to a supermarket near you soon. So yes organic fruits and vegetables are probably going to cost more...but you get a lot more for your money...and a lot less (pesticides).

    In a report from The Organic Center organic foods have been found to have1:

    • Organic milk has 62% more healthy omega-3 fatty acids than conventional milk
    • Organic crops have higher cancer-fighting antioxidant levels
    • Organic crops have 48% lower levels of the toxic metal cadmium than conventional crops
    • Pesticides are found 4 times more frequently in conventional crops than organic crops

    And of course organic crops are non-GMO. The devestating health effects of GMO plants are too lengthy to go into in this piece so we recommend you do a little homework. Search for the Seralini study and health effects of Roundup for startes. Read Seeds of Destruction and bookmark Institute for Responsible Technology

    Step 2: Supplement your diet with a fantastic superfood. This is where we recommend Green Vibrance from Vibrant Health.

    Green Vibrance supports the 4 foundations of health. Nutrition, Digestion, Circulation & Immune System.

    The Benefits
    There are a lot of ingredients in Green Vibrance: 73 in all. They were put together with care, in order to maximize the synergism among nutrients. The result delivers healthful nutritional support to the 11 body systems. Enjoy:

    • More complete nutrition; a host of rare, scarce nutrients.
    • Support for digestion and gastrointestinal function*
    • Support for healthy circulation*
    • More energy*
    • Support for clearance of waste products of metabolism, detoxification*
    • Support for neurological health*
    • Support for cardiovascular function*
    • Support for normal blood sugar and cholesterol*
    • Support for immunity*
    • Resistance to oxidative changes associated with aging*
    • And some consumers swear they look younger

    The ingredients in Green Vibrance were selected to support essential bodily functions without which life cannot be sustained. Cereal grass powders and juices (i.e. Certified organic barley, oat, wheat, and Kamut) deliver virtually all known nutrients and several uncharacterized co-nutrients of great value. For example, cereal grasses contain a hidden “growth factor” that causes young animals to more rapidly develop, growing larger, stronger, and healthier with robust immune systems. Those same cereal grasses allow mature animals (and undoubtedly humans) to repair bodily tissues more quickly. Organic alfalfa sprouts, organic broccoli sprouts, organic spirulina, soft-cell chlorella, stabilized rice bran, organic beet juice, organic parsley, organic spinach, organic carrot, green bean, zucchini and sea vegetables enrich the nutrient density and diversity of the primary food ingredients in Green Vibrance.

    Their industry leading dose of 25 billion friendly probiotics, balanced by a rich combination of Bifido- and Lacto- bacilli from 12 strains in each serving of Green Vibrance bolsters the one system that must function well first and foremost above all others if health is to be improved or optimized. One must be able to digest food and transport nutrients into the body from the gastrointestinal tract before health can be sustained. The 12 strains of probiotics in Green Vibrance help assure a healthy G.I. tract by building and maintaining colonies of robust intestinal flora.

    Chlorophyll from the green foods in Green Vibrance further supports intestinal health. Apple fiber from our certified organic whole apple powder plus sunflower lecithin help support elimination of heavy metals, cholesterol and toxins from the intestinal tract before they can be absorbed. To a lesser degree, they can perform similar tasks in the circulating blood itself.

    Over eons of time, the liver became quite adept at denaturing, destroying and getting rid of unnecessary substances in everyday foods. Keep in mind that 40% of a plain old carrot is unneeded, toxic material. Your liver has no trouble handling that. But when it comes to detoxifying some of the modern chemicals which are absorbed by, and circulate through, your body, we believe the liver needs a little help. That is why we’ve added liver support ingredients.

    Human metabolism is built on oxidation, which both keeps us alive and slowly pushes us toward the grave. The quiet damage to cells caused by necessary cellular oxidation defines the degenerative changes of aging. Oxidative damage is involved, too, in the progression of every known “disease of affluence” such as cardiovascular disease, arthritis, diabetes and others. Certainly one’s personal genetic code and lifestyle also contribute.

    Aging and degenerative disease are ubiquitous -- we all will encounter them in time. Nutritive antioxidants may diminish the severity and slow the advance of oxidative damage and.* Each serving of Green Vibrance delivers a powerful 960 mg of herbal antioxidants in addition to the beta-carotene, vitamin C, vitamin E and other antioxidants naturally present from the other plant components of the formula. These antioxidants, plus lecithin, soluble fibers, policosanol and other ingredients help support cardiovascular health.* A strong heart and clear arteries are essential to delivering nutrients to and removing waste from every cell in the body. Ginkgo biloba extract, grape seed extract, green tea extract pomegranate extract, and Silymarin (milk thistle) extract are all known to improve peripheral circulation.

    The immune support delivered by Green Vibrance is found in its content of betaglucans, ImmunEnhancer™ arabinogalactans and Astragalus extract.* But let us not loose sight of the immune enhancing effect of a healthy digestive tract. 50% of your own immune cells are found there. Well nourished, vibrant cells, amply protected by the army of antioxidants in Green Vibrance, are themselves resistant to disease.*

    Green Vibrance has always supported good skeletal health, undoubtedly due to its alkalinizing nature, bioavailable boron and CalZbone®, an extract of Cissus quadrangularis that has been clinically shown to improve bone mineral density. Beginning with version 9.0, Green Vibrance added another key nutrient for bone health: Vitamin D3. The vitamin D3 in Green Vibrance is a specially made material from an actual plant source, lichen. Green Vibrance is now safe for vegans.

    The entire Green Vibrance formula was designed and balanced to help establish and sustain good health.

    Vibrant Health gives "going green" a whole new meaning.

    Green Vibrance

    References:

    1. http://organic-center.org/organic-fact-sheets/the-health-benefits-of-organic/
  • Humble Herbs Worth Their Weight in Gold

    Written by Suzanne M. Diamond, M.Sc.

    Four humble herbs with an impressive history for helping people to improve their health and overcome disease include burdock root (Arctium lappa L.), sheep sorrel herb (Rumex acetosella L.), Indian rhubarb root (Rheum officinale L.) and slippery elm bark (Ulmus rubra Muhl.). A traditional herbal formulation made with these four herbs is gaining recognition as a good remedy for treating a wide range of health problems. The below information covers some of the impressive research on these four herbs and helps to shed light on how this synergist blend can afford so many profound health benefits.

    BURDOCK ROOT(Arctium lappa L.) Not far from your doorstep, if you look, you can usually find the soft green leaves of burdock, common in most neighborhoods— and based on much scientific and historical data, the root of this plant can dramatically enhance your health by boosting your immune system, improving digestion and thwarting cancer in many different ways. Regularly incorporating burdock root in your daily regime may even be able to increase your lifespan based on anti-aging results found with animals. There are many other documented and accepted health benefits of regularly drinking burdock root tea based on the German Pharmacopoeia, including the relief of gastrointestinal complaints and bone and joint conditions.

    Burdock root, also known as gobo or Poor-man’s potatoes, is an important food in Japan known for its many healing properties. Burdock root can safely be eaten as a root vegetable and is popularly eaten by Japanese people and sushi lovers of all nationalities. When grown in loamy soil, the root grows into a very long, creamy colored tap root similar in appearance to a carrot but much longer. It can grow deeper than most root veggies and is known as a good source of trace elements and minerals accessed from deeper soil layers. Unlike carrots and potatoes, burdock root does not contain starch it contains complex carbohydrates called fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) including 27–45 percent inulin. When people eat starchy roots, this causes a sharp rise in blood sugar and blood insulin levels. But burdock root provides the body with soluble fibers that do not affect blood sugar or blood insulin levels. This makes burdock root and FOS particularly beneficial for diabetics. FOS and inulin have many scientifically documented health benefits including acting as a beneficial prebiotic by feeding beneficial intestinal microflora (BIM) while also eliminating potential gut pathogens, optimizing colonic pH, boosting bone strength through increasing calcium and mineral absorption from food, supporting serum enterolactone and enterodiol concentrations, helping to control blood sugar levels and reducing cholesterol. Other foods that contain inulin include chicory root, onions, Jerusalem artichokes and bananas.

    According to Bengmark (2005), researching out of the Institute of Hepatology, University College, London Medical School, U.K., inulin has prebiotic qualities and can affect intestinal immune cells and potentially repair the gut wall and thereby improve overall immune function. Several recent scientific studies have documented significant immune-enhancing effects of inulin and oligofructose.

    Taking herbal formulas that contains burdock root, rich in natural oligofructose and inulin, have been found to afford many digestive benefits and favorable results have been shown with a number of digestive disorders according to Tamayo and colleagues (2000).

    SHEEP SORREL (Rumex acetosella L.) Sheep sorrel is a common herb found abundantly at roadsides and is otherwise known as sour grass because of its tart leaves. The leaves are popularly used in herbal teas for rejuvenating health and cleansing toxins from the body. Sheep sorrel has powerful phytoestrogen activity (phytoestrogen means plant-estrogen) based on in vitro studies conducted by U.S. hormone researcher, Dr. David Zava in 1998. Sheep sorrel came in tenth out of 150 herbs tested for phytoestrogen activity; the list was headed by soy beans, licorice root and red clover herb, all legumes wellknown for their phytoestrogen activity.

    Sheep sorrel is an important component of ESSIAC® tea and products, together with three other herbs, burdock root, slippery elm bark and Indian rhubarb root. Early research on sheep sorrel herb by famed Canadian nurse Rene M. Caisse and R.O. Fisher, M.D., in Ontario in the 1920s and 30s, found that sheep sorrel liquid extract given to mice with artificially induced tumors caused cancerous tumors to markedly regress and disappear. The other herbs in ESSIAC were said to help with cleansing and eliminating the dead cancer cells and other toxins from the system. Nurse Rene Caisse also reputedly had success with treating cancer patients with ESSIAC together with sheep sorrel extract—including one case cured and two cases improved accepted by a Cancer Commission set up by the Canadian Government in the 1939. There are many more anecdotal reports and some well documented cases of success with ESSIAC for dramatically improving people’s health very quickly.

    Human clinical studies with other phytoestrogen-rich foods and herbs, such as flaxseed and red clover, have also produced profound anti-cancer results. For instance, clinical studies with breast cancer patients given muffins containing 50 grams of ground flaxseed daily (flaxseed contains phytoestrogens called lignans in its seed coat) versus placebo muffins (without flaxseed) conducted by Dr. Paul Goss, Dr. Lilian Thompson and colleagues in 2000 at the Princess Margaret Hospital in Toronto, Canada, and a further clinical study conducted by these same researchers with post-menopausal breast cancer patients taking 25 grams of flaxseed daily documented significant anti-cancer effects within 30 to 40 days. A study done with a prostate cancer patient in Australia reported by Dr. Fredrick O. Stevens (1997) and a further randomized, placebo-controlled clinical study with prostate cancer patients conducted by Dr. Jarred and colleagues in England (2002) using red clover isoflavonoid extracts (160 mg/daily for only seven days in the case study and for 30–40 days in the clinical trial) have documented strong anti-cancer effects for red clover isoflavonoid phytoestrogens within days/weeks based on tumorectomies. There were no serious negative side effects noted in any of these studies.

    Foods and herbs rich in phytoestrogens, such as flaxseed (lignans), burdock root (isoflavones), burdock seed (lignans), milk thistle seed (lignans), red clover (isoflavones), soybean (isoflaonves), kudzu root (isoflavones), etc., once eaten, are metabolized within the gut by beneficial intestinal bacteria and the isoflavonoids and lignans that they contain significantly increase serum enterolactone and enterodiol concentrations. According to research conducted by the Australian company, Novogen, certain phytoestrogen metabolites function to inhibit anti-apoptosis proteins in cancer cells thereby causing cancer cells to go through apoptosis or programmed cell death without harming normal cells. Simply put, phtoestrogen-rich foods and extracts can cause cancer cells to simply die and be cleansed from the body without causing terrible side effects. Many phytoestrogens have also been shown to stimulate beneficial anti-cancer enzymes. The powerful and safe anti-cancer activity of phytoestrogen-rich foods and herbs may help to explain the myriad anecdotal reports of spontaneous remissions in cancer patients and miracle cancer cures documented over the centuries with various herbs and herbal combinations. More research is needed in this area to clearly define the anti-cancer activity of different phytoestrogens.

    Many foods, herbs and supplements contain beneficial phytoestrogens and other natural anti-cancer compounds that help to balance hormones in different ways. Sheep sorrel appears to be one that may have great promise for cancer patients. Further human clinical studies with sheep sorrel are needed to confirm the beneficial estrogen modulating and anti-cancer activity of its phytoestrogens and other active ingredients.

    SLIPPERY ELM INNER BARK
    (Ulmus fulva Michx. and U. rubra Muhl.) Slippery elm bark has a long history of use as a medicine and also as a food that can be eaten like gruel and is commonly made into lozenges for sore throats and coughs. The inner bark of this tree has been used as folk remedy for treating cancer and other conditions including: respiratory problems, throat irritation, fever, abscesses, dysentery, urinary and kidney inflammations.

    Choi and colleagues (2002) at Pusan National University in Korea studied slippery elm bark and found that it exhibited dose-dependent peroxynitrite scavenging activities. According to Langmead and colleagues (2002) at the Academic Department of Adult and Paediatric Gastroenterology, London, U.K., slippery elm bark also exhibited potent antioxidant activity using in vitro tests based on chemiluminescence used to detect herbal effects on generation of oxygen radicals by mucosal biopsies from patients with active ulcerative colitis. These researchers concluded that slippery elm and other herbal extracts merit formal evaluation as novel therapies in inflammatory bowel disease.

    Lans, Turner, Khan and Bauer (2007) report the use of Ulmus fulva Michx. in ethnoveterinary medicines used to treat endoparasites and stomach problems in pigs and pets in British Columbia, Canada. The authors note that Ulmus fulva, along with other plants used for this purpose, have mid- to high-level validity for their ethnoveterinary use as anthelmintics (deworming agents).

    Five case studies of patients with psoriasis following a dietary regimen including a pinch of slippery elm bark taken daily with meals found relief of symptoms according to Brown and colleagues (2004) at the University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, U.S. The five psoriasis cases, ranging from mild to severe at the study onset, improved on all measured outcomes over a six-month period.

    INDIAN RHUBARB ROOT
    (Rheum officinale L.)
    Michael Castleman in his book, Medicinal Herbs describes rhubarb (medicinal rhubarbs, Rheum officinale and R. palmatum; and garden rhubarb, R. rhaponticum noted as having similar but less powerful action) as an odd plant: its roots are medicinal; its stems make tasty pies but its leaves are poisonous. He also notes that Chinese physicians have used rhubarb root since ancient times prescribing it externally as a treatment for cuts and burns and internally in small amounts for dysentery while large amounts have powerful laxative action. Formerly, the root was an important drug in many army camps, said to stop dysentry in its tracks. The active ingredients of Indian rhubarb root include emodin and aloe-emodin, rhein and other anthracene derivatives.

    Conclusion: According to many studies, adding a time-tested herbal formula with these humble herbs to your daily menu may bring a boon to your health resulting in many immediately noticeable benefits to your well-being.

    Formal clinical trials are warranted to evaluate the real anticancer effects of formulas containing these four herbs. Such clinical studies need to be carefully designed, placebo controlled clinical trials with cancer patients scheduled for tumorectomies but not receiving chemo or radiation, in order to avoid confounding variables from these treatments (i.e. similar in design to studies assessing the anticancer effects of flaxseed and red clover).

    For references send a S.A.S.E. to totalhealth.

  • Important Minerals for Bone Health & More

    According to the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), Americans have failed to meet the RDA for several key nutrients, including calcium, magnesium, and zinc.1 Other research on both athletes and sedentary individuals indicated that their food intake was RDA-deficient in more than one-third of the seven minerals analyzed.2 In addition, research done by the USDA has shown that over a period of about 90 years, a 3–7 percent decrease in magnesium, zinc and potassium levels occurred in our food supply.3 Furthermore, studies from various sources demonstrated that growing conditions, agricultural technologies and nutrient content of the soil can reduce some minerals in some crops by as much as 300 percent.4,5,6,7,8

    This data clearly indicates that Americans are not getting sufficient minerals in their diet, which can have a number of health implications. One such implication is the loss of bone mineral density, a common occurrence as we age, and more prevalent in women than men.9 Consequently, supplementation with mineral supplements can help to fill the missing mineral gap and promote healthy bone density. In doing so, it is important to note that calcium is not the only nutrient necessary for helping to build bone density. The following text will elucidate some of the key nutrients necessary for healthy bone density, including calcium.

    Potassium
    Potassium is necessary to help maintain normal osmotic pressure of body fluids, the acid-base balance of the body, and for transmission of nerve impulses and muscle contraction. In addition, at least four cross-sectional studies have reported significant positive associations between dietary potassium intake and bone mineral density (BMD) in populations of premenopausal, perimenopausal, and postmenopausal women as well as elderly men.10,11,12 In studies on postmenopausal women, supplementation with potassium decreased urinary acid and calcium excretion, resulting in increased biomarkers of bone formation and decreased biomarkers of bone resorption.13 Other studies have reported that supplementation with potassium decreased urinary acid excretion and biomarkers of bone resorption in postmenopausal women.14

    Calcium
    Calcium is necessary for the formation of bones and teeth, blood clotting, and for normal muscle and nerve activity. Adequate calcium, along with regular exercise and a healthy diet, helps maintain good bone health, and may help teen and young adult women reduce their high risk for osteoporosis later in life.15,16,17 Furthermore, daily calcium supplementation has been shown to effectively slow bone loss.18,19,20,21 Calcium’s role in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis is also well established.22 Research overwhelmingly supports the use of calcium supplementation, alone or in combination with other therapies, for slowing or stopping the progression of osteoporosis.23 As a matter of fact, FDA-approved therapy for the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis includes calcium supplementation.24 In addition, osteoporosis can lead to an increased incidence of fractures. Research has clearly shown that calcium supplementation can help to reduce the risk of, and even prevent fractures in osteoporosis.25,26,27,28

    Regarding the types of calcium, hydroxyapatite, calcium citrate, and calcium malate are good choices. Research using calcium citrate/malate has demonstrated a high level of absorption and an ability to effectively promote the consolidation and maintenance of bone mass in adults.29

    In addition, some research has shown that calcium citrate has greater absorption than other forms such as calcium gluconolactate and carbonate.30,31,32 Then, there is hydroxyapatite (HA), a whole bone concentrate that provides calcium, phosphorus and a variety of other naturally occurring bone nutrients. Research indicates that women who use HA gain significant cortical bone thickness as compared to women who used calcium alone (as calcium gluconate).33

    Iodine
    Iodine is an essential component of thyroid hormones, which regulate metabolic rate and other functions. Thyroid hormones have many interactions with the skeleton, and play a role in bone growth and development in the fetal growth plate and the normal mechanisms of mature bone remodeling.34

    Magnesium
    Magnesium is necessary for normal functioning of muscle and nervous tissue and participates in the formation of bones and teeth.35,36 Given its role in bone health, it is not surprising that people with osteoporosis were reported to be at high risk for magnesium malabsorption.37 Furthermore, bone38 and blood levels of magnesium have also been reported to be low in people with osteoporosis.39 Research has shown that supplementing with magnesium reduces indications of bone loss.40 Other research has shown that supplementing with magnesium daily also stopped bone loss, and even increased bone mass in twenty-seven of thirty-one people with osteoporosis in a two-year study.41

    Zinc
    Zinc is a versatile trace mineral required as a cofactor by more than 100 enzymes in every organ of the body. It is also associated with the hormone insulin, involved in making genetic material and proteins, immune reactions, transport of vitamin A, taste perception, wound healing, the making of sperm, and the normal development of the fetus. The highest concentrations of zinc in the body are in bone, the prostate gland, and the eyes.42

    Low blood and bone levels of zinc have been reported in people with osteoporosis.43 Also, research indicates that urinary loss of zinc may be high in people with osteoporosis.44 Other research found that men consuming a good amount of zinc in their diet had almost half the risk of osteoporosis-related fractures compared with those consuming significantly less dietary zinc.45 Furthermore, in one study the use of supplemental zinc with calcium was more effective than calcium supplementation by itself in protecting against the loss of bone density.46

    Selenium
    Selenium functions as a constituent of the antioxidant enzyme glutathione peroxidase, which detoxifies products of oxidized fats, and is found in the red blood cells. Selenium plays a fundamental role in regulating thyroid and other functions of the human body including reproduction, autoimmunity, glucose metabolism and bone metabolism.47 Specifically, it is the selenoproteins that are involved in bone metabolism.48

    Copper
    Copper is necessary with iron for the formation of red blood cells and nerve fibers. It is also necessary in the formation of the hair and skin pigment melanin. Furthermore, copper is needed for normal bone synthesis, and one study reported that daily copper prevented bone loss.49 The potential importance of copper for people with osteoporosis requires further research, although consumption of some copper can still be recommended at this time at least for general nutritional purposes.

    Manganese
    Manganese is an activator of enzymes (cofactor), and is involved in fatty acid metabolism and protein synthesis. It also plays a role in bone health.50 Unpublished research indicated that manganese deficiency occurred in a small group of women with osteoporosis,51 and published research using a combination of minerals including manganese was reported to halt bone loss.52

    Chromium
    Chromium participates in glucose metabolism by enhancing the effects of insulin.53 Since some data suggest that insulin is a potential anabolic agent in bone, this insulin-enhancing effect of chromium may contribute to bone health.54

    Molybdenum
    In humans, molybdenum is known to function as a cofactor for three enzymes: sulfite oxidase, xanthine oxidase, and aldehyde oxidase. Sulfite oxidase catalyzes the transformation of sulfite to sulfate, a reaction that is necessary for the metabolism of sulfur-containing amino acids (methionine and cysteine). Xanthine oxidase catalyzes the breakdown of nucleotides (precursors to DNA and RNA) to form uric acid, which contributes to the plasma antioxidant capacity of the blood. Aldehyde oxidase and xanthine oxidase catalyze hydroxylation reactions that involve a number of different molecules with similar chemical structures. Xanthine oxidase and aldehyde oxidase also play a role in the metabolism of drugs and toxins.55

    Silica
    Silica has been recognized as playing a significant role in bone formation.56 Also, supplementation with silica has increased bone formation in animal research.57 In human research, supplementation with silica increased bone mineral density in a group of eight women with osteoporosis.58 Bamboo stem extract is a rich source of silica, and is used in this formulation.

    Boron
    Chronically low intakes of the trace mineral boron may predispose people to osteoporosis.59 Changes caused by boron deprivation include reduced blood levels of calcium, as well as an increase in urinary excretion of calcium. Boron deprivation causes changes similar to those seen in women with postmenopausal osteoporosis, and this mineral is needed to prevent the excessive bone loss, which often occurs in postmenopausal women and older men.60 In addition, studies have reported possible improvements in bone mineral density in women who were supplemented with boron.61 For example, research has found that supplementation with 3 mg daily of the boron reduced urinary loss of both calcium and magnesium.62

    Vanadium
    Vanadium is a trace mineral that appears to be important in normal bone growth and as a cofactor for various enzyme reactions. The highest concentrations of vanadium are found in the liver, kidney, and bone.63 Some evidence suggests that vanadium can mimic the actions of insulin, possibly by causing phosphorylation of insulin receptor proteins.64 Since some data suggest that insulin is a potential anabolic agent in bone, this insulin-mimicking action of vanadium may further contribute to bone health.65

    References:

    1. Moshfegh AJ, Tippett KS, Borrud LG, Perloff BP. Food and Nutrient Intakes by Individuals in the United States, by Sex and Age, 1994-96. Agriculture Research Service; http://www.nalusda.gov/ttic/tektran/data/000009/29/0000092962.html.
    2. Misner B. Food Alone May Not Provide Sufficient Micronutrients for Preventing Deficiency. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition 2006;3(1):51-55.
    3. Gerrior, S. and Bente, L. 1997. Nutrient Content of the U.S. Food Supply, 1909-94. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Center for Nutrition Policy and Promotion. Home Economics Report No. 53.
    4. USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 15 , USDA Nutrient Data Laboratory, Last updated December 11, 2002; http://www.nal.usda.gov/fnic/foodcomp/.
    5. Barta DJ, Tibbitts TW, Barta DJ. Calcium localization and tipburn development in lettuce leaves during early enlargement. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science2000;125(3):294-8
    6. McKeehen JD, Smart DJ, Mackowiak CL, et al. Effect of CO2 levels on nutrient content of lettuce and radish. Advances in space research: the official journal of the Committee on Space Research 1996; 18(4-5):85-92.
    7. Kubota J, Allaway WH. Geographic distribution of trace element problems. In J.J.Mortvedt, ed., Micronutrients in Agriculture: Proceedings of Symposium held at Muscle Shoals, Alabama, Madison, WI: Soil Science Society of America; 1972:525–554.
    8. Composition of Foods: Raw, Processed, Prepared. USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 15. December 2002. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center, Nutrient Data Laboratory.
    9. Pietschmann P, Rauner M, Sipos W, Kerschan-Schindl K. Osteoporosis: an age-related and gender-specific disease—a minireview. Gerontology 2008;55(1):3-12.
    10. New SA, Bolton-Smith C, Grubb DA, Reid DM. Nutritional influences on bone mineral density: a cross-sectional study in premenopausal women. Am J Clin Nutr 1997;65(6):1831–9.
    11. New SA, Robins SP, Campbell MK, et al. Dietary influences on bone mass and bone metabolism: further evidence of a positive link between fruit and vegetable consumption and bone health? Am J Clin Nutr 2000;71(1):142–51.
    12. Tucker KL, Hannan MT, Chen H, Cupples LA, Wilson PW, Kiel DP. Potassium, magnesium, and fruit and vegetable intakes are associated with greater bone mineral density in elderly men and women. Am J Clin Nutr 1999;69(4):727–36.
    13. Sebastian A, Harris ST, Ottaway JH, Todd KM, Morris RC, Jr. Improved mineral balance and skeletal metabolism in postmenopausal women treated with potassium bicarbonate. N Engl J Med 1994;330(25):1776–81.
    14. Marangella M, Di Stefano M, Casalis S, Berutti S, D’Amelio P, Isaia GC. Effects of potassium citrate supplementation on bone metabolism. Calcif Tissue Int 2004;74(4):330–35.
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    29. Reinwald S, Weaver CM, Kester JJ. The health benefits of calcium citrate malate: a review of the supporting science. Adv Food Nutr Res 2008;54:219–346.
    30. Hansen C, Werner E, Erbes HJ, Larrat V, Kaltwasser JP. Intestinal calcium absorption from different calcium preparations: influence of anion and solubility. Osteoporos Int 1996;6:386–93.
    31. Gonnelli S, Cepollaro C, Camporeale A, et al. Acute biochemical variations induced by two different calcium salts in healthy perimenopausal women. Calcif Tissue Int 1995;57(3):175–7.
    32. Harvey JA, Zobitz MM, Pak CY. Dose dependency of calcium absorption: a comparison of calcium carbonate and calcium citrate. J Bone Miner Res (1988) 3(3):253–8.
    33. Epstein O, Y Kato, R Dick, and S Sherlock. Vitamin D, hydroxyapatite, and calcium gluconate in treatment of cortical bone thinning in postmenopausal women with primary biliary cirrhosis. Am J Clin Nutr 1982;36:426–30.
    34. Wexler JA, Sharretts J. Thyroid and bone. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am 2007;36(3):673–705.
    35. Tortora G, Anagnostakos N. "Principles of anatomy and physiology." New York: Harper & Row Publishers; 1981: 655.
    36. Wilson ED, Fisher KH, Garcia PA. "Principles of Nutrition," fourth edition. New York: John Wiley & Sons, New York; 1979:274.
    37. Cohen L, Laor A, Kitzes R. Magnesium malabsorption in postmenopausal osteoporosis. Magnesium 1983; 2:139–43.
    38. Cohen L, Kitzes R. Infrared spectroscopy and magnesium content of bone mineral in osteoporotic women. Isr J Med Sci 1981;17:1123–25.
    39. Geinster JY, Strauss L, Deroisy R, et al. Preliminary report of decreased serum magnesium in postmenopausal osteoporosis. Magnesium 1989; 8:106–9.
    40. Dimai H-PPorta S, Wirnsberger G, et al. Daily oral magnesium supplementation suppresses bone turnover in young adult males. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1998; 83:2742–48.
    41. Stendig-Lindberg G, Tepper R, Leichter I. bone density in a two year controlled trial of peroral magnesium in osteoporosis. Magnesium Res (1993) 6:155–63.
    42. Whitney E, Cataldo C, Rolfes S. "Understanding Normal and Clinical Nutrition," Fifth Edition. Belmont, California:West/ Wadsworth; 1998:463–8.
    43. Sahap Atik O. Zinc and senile osteoporosis. J Am Geriatr Soc 1983; 31:790–91.
    44. Relea P, et al. Zinc, biochemical markers of nutrition and type 1 osteoporosis. Age Ageing (1995) 24:303–7.
    45. Elmståhl S, et al. Increased Incidence of Fractures in Middleaged and Elderly Men with Low Intakes of Phosphorus and Zinc. Osteoporos Int 1998; 8:333–40.
    46. Strause L, Saltman P, Smith KT, et al. Spinal bone loss in postmenopausal women supplemented with calcium and trace minerals. J Nutr1994; 124:1060–4.
    47. Kaprara A, Krassas GE. Selenium and thyroidal function; the role of immunoassays. Hell J Nucl Med 2006;9(3):195–203.
    48. Köhrle J, Jakob F, Contempré B, Dumont JE. Selenium, the thyroid, and the endocrine system. Endocr Rev2005;26(7):944–84.
    49. Eaton-Evans J, McIlrath EM, Jackson WE, et al. Copper supplementation and bone-mineral density in middle-aged women. Proc Nutr Soc 1995;54:191A.
    50. Gold M. Basketball bones. Science 1980; 80:101–2. 51. Raloff J. Reasons for boning up on manganese. Science News 1986;27:199.
    51. Strause L, Saltman P, Smith KT, et al. Spinal bone loss in postmenopausal women supplemented with calcium and trace minerals. J Nutr 1994;124:1060–4.
    52. Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine. Chromium. Dietary reference intakes for vitamin A, vitamin K, boron, chromium, copper, iodine, iron, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, silicon, vanadium, and zinc. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press; 2001:197–223.
    53. Thrailkill KM, Lumpkin CK Jr, Bunn RC, Kemp SF, Fowlkes JL. Is insulin an anabolic agent in bone? Dissecting the diabetic bone for clues. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2005;289(5):E735–45.
    54. Eckhert C. Other trace elements In: Shils ME, Shike M, Ross AC, Caballero B, Cousins RJ, eds. "Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease." 10th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins; 2006:338–350.
    55. Carlisle EM. Silicon localization and calcification in developing bone. Fed Proc 1969;28:374.
    56. Hott M, de Pollak C, Modrowski D, Marie PJ. Short-term effects of organic silicon on trabecular bone in mature ovariectamized rats. Calcif Tissue Int 1993;53:174–9.
    57. Eisinger J, Clairet D. Effects of silicon, fluoride, etidronate and magnesium on bone mineral density: a retrospective study. Magnes Res 1993;6:247–9.
    58. Bunker VW. The role of nutrition in osteoporosis. British Journal Of Biomedical Science 1994; 51(3):228–40.
    59. Nielsen FH. Studies on the relationship between boron and magnesium, which possibly effects the formation and maintenance of bones. Magnesium And Trace Elements 1990; 9(2):61–9.
    60. Volpe SL, Taper LJ, Meacham S. The relationship between boron and magnesium status and bone mineral density in the human: a review. Magnesium Research 1993; 6(3):291–6.
    61. Nielson FH, Hunt CD, Mullen LM, Hunt JR. Effect of dietary boron on mineral, estrogen, and testosterone metabolism in postmenopausal women. FASEB J 1987;1:394–7.
    62. Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine. "Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc." Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 2002. Available at: www.nap.edu/books/0309072794/html.
    63. Harland BF, Harden-Williams BA. Is vanadium of human nutritional importance yet? J Am Diet Assoc 1994;94:891–4.
    64. Thrailkill KM, Lumpkin CK Jr, Bunn RC, Kemp SF, Fowlkes JL. Is insulin an anabolic agent in bone? Dissecting the diabetic bone for clues. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2005;289(5):E735–45.
  • Ipriflavone: A sure winner for bone health

    Research released by the Women’s Health Initiative ( WHI ) that showed that 1,000 mg calcium and 400 IU vitamin D in healthy postmenopausal women (between the ages of 50 to 79 years) did not reduce the risk of bone fractures. The study did show that the supplementation of calcium and vitamin D, combined with the recommended amount of calcium from the diet, significantly improved hipbone density. This study was a bit discouraging for many women who bank their bone health on just a daily calcium supplement product. There is so much more to do for bone health, including eating a wholesome diet, exercise and a healthy lifestyle. In addition, there is a branded ingredient compound called Ostivone®, known in the research as ipriflavone, which when combined with calcium has been shown to significantly increase bone density.

  • Nutrient Combining

    Nutrient Combining Dallas Clouatre

    Two years ago in this space the topic was the entourage effect and how it differed from nutritional and medical findings involving synergy: "Whereas synergism involves components each of which is active on its own and which in combination yield effects greater than the sum of the individual contributions, the entourage effect may involve components most of which on their own may exhibit little or no benefit or may yield benefits that are otherwise unrelated."1 In practice, of course, there is more than a little overlap and one finds this all the time with foods and supplements. A good example is the so-called French paradox, generally presented as the supposed paradox between the French consumption of comparatively large percentage of calories as fat, especially as animal fat, and the Gallic low rate of heart disease.

    Is the French Paradox Explained by Nutrient Synergies?
    Sardonic observers sometimes remark that Americans count calories with neat little categories for carbohydrates, fat and protein whereas the French are only concerned with how food tastes and how the meal looks, its "presentation." Assuming that the consumption of animal fat matters, a point increasingly in question, the French classically have not cared while enjoying enviable levels of health, hence, by Anglo- American lights, the paradox. The traditional French diet is >42 percent fat, much of it either saturated or monounsaturated. The French (traditionally, at least, maybe still) drink red wine daily, yet outlive Americans (81.6 years versus 78.8 years, as of 2015, other statistical bases giving similar results).2 The French also suffer from fewer cases of coronary heart disease and, in actuality, remain ambulatory and self-sufficient much longer than do Americans, meaning that statistics of relative life expectancy should be balanced by a close look at morbidity statistics. According to the 2014 World Health Organization data set, the French rank second in the world, behind South Korea, for having the lowest mortality rates from coronary heart disease. America? We rank 44th.3 Significantly, in France they consume almost no sugary drinks and eat very little sugar in any form. These dietary practices should be contrasted with those in the States.4

    A new report from the USDA says Americans are eating less fat than we did 30 years ago. Here's the opening from an online article about the report:5 On average, Americans are eating 10g less fat per day today than they were in the late 1970s, according to new research. In a report comparing food consumption patterns in 1977–78 versus 2005–2008, Biing-Hwan Lin and Joanne Guthrie from USDA's Economic Research Service found that on average, Americans consumed 75.2g of fat in 2005–08 compared with 85.6g in 1977–78. Meanwhile, the percentage of total calories derived from fat also declined substantially from 39.7% to 33.4% between 1977 and 2008, said the authors.

    Of course, there is no paradox if the long-standing condemnation of the role of fat and saturated fats in cardiovascular disease is mistaken, as discussed in last month's column and previously in Heart Matters Do Statin Drugs. However, let's assume that there is a connection and that the paradox, as often suggested, is a result of the French love of red wine. Is wine's protection from a single magic phytonutrient, resveratrol, or is the combination of ingredients the key?

    Many who argue that there is a paradox suggest that the phytochemical known as resveratrol is responsible for the low rates of cardiovascular disease. Critics argue that this is nonsense because there simply is not enough of the compound present to exert any effect. In fact, just this point was the focus of an exchange back in 2008 in which a colleague, Joseph Evans, and I were participants.6 Subsequent findings decisively have proven that Evans and I were correct and our interlocutor mistaken in both his evidence and his arguments.

    The skeptic's argument went like this: "The potency of most of the nutritional supplements labeled as resveratrol is in the range of 30 mg to 100 mg. This is 30 to 100 times lower than doses thought to be in the range for therapeutic effects in humans." Our response was that red wine is a widely studied source of the combination of resveratrol and quercetin and that significant health benefits are associated with men it was demonstrated that "the platelet antiaggregatory effect of de-alcoholized red wines could be computed...from its concentrations of resveratrol and quercetin."7 Similarly, the combination of resveratrol and quercetin exerts a powerful synergy in the inhibition of inducible nitric oxide (the form linked to inflammation).8 In animals fed a high-cholesterol diet, the human equivalent of 210 mg resveratrol per day improved endothelial function.9 However, more was not better, with animal experiments demonstrating that, in human equivalent amounts, approximately 360 mg per day led to greater life expectancy than approximately 1,565 mg per day.10 Finally, there is experimental evidence that the combination of nutrients such as pterostilbene, quercetin, and resveratrol might be more active than any one of these alone at much higher dosages with research showing that subeffective doses of combinations of anti-inflammatory compounds can inhibit, for instance, carcinogenesis.11

    In contention was whether relatively modest amounts of resveratrol in combination yield significant health benefits for humans despite the amounts being ineffective on their own. A recent clinical study provides an instance of proof that is in line with other studies published since 2008.12 In a randomized, placebo-controlled crossover clinical trial with 29 overweight and obese subjects, trans-resveratrol and hesperetin taken together were effective in altering a marker related to insulin resistance and improving metabolic and vascular health. (Hesperetin is a flavanone, a particular type of flavonoid.) Treatment was one capsule daily for eight weeks and a washout period of six weeks with 90 mg resveratrol and 120 mg hesperetin and placebo. Neither resveratrol nor hesperetin was efficacious by itself, whereas together they significantly decreased fasting and postprandial plasma glucose, increased the oral glucose insulin sensitivity index and improved arterial dilatation.13 In other words, combining these nutrients is pivotal in promoting their benefits.

    Underappreciated Nutrient Combinations

    Magnesium and Potassium
    Not usually considered as an aspect of the French diet that separates it from American nutrient intake is the ingestion of minerals important for blood pressure and blood sugar regulation, such as magnesium and potassium. Americans notoriously do not consume green vegetables, primary dietary sources of both minerals. This is a shame because dietary potassium regulates vascular calcification and arterial stiffness, which is to say, two major factors determining cardiovascular health.14 There is much noise made about lowering sodium intake, but it is the ratio of sodium to potassium in the diet that determines blood pressure, not the simple amount of sodium.15

    The combination of magnesium and potassium arguably is particularly efficacious for a number of reasons. For one, the development of insulin resistance impedes the proper uptake of potassium.16 Magnesium deficiency inclines subjects toward insulin resistance. There is considerable evidence that inadequate magnesium predisposes individuals to potassium deficiency and makes this deficiency difficult to treat with potassium alone. Magnesium, which is a natural calcium channel blocker, controls the flow of sodium and potassium across the cell membrane and therefore potentiates cellular replenishment of potassium.17 Significantly, Mildred Seelig, the great magnesium researcher, pioneered an approach in which the ingestion of a potassium and magnesium salt with fixed ratios of the two minerals and a certain minimum per day proved to be adequate to reverse and control moderate hypertension.18,19

    Improvement in bone health is another benefit that long-time readers of these TotalHealth articles may recall is associated with an adequate consumption of magnesium and potassium. In older individuals an increased intake of animal protein (but not plant) in conjunction with a significant intake of green vegetables, i.e., sources of magnesium and potassium, is associated with better bone health.

    How About Food/Nutrient Combinations?
    Some quite simple food combinations easily improve nutrient uptake. For instance, today there is much hype about the development of "golden rice" via genetic modification as a means of overcoming vitamin A deficiencies in poorer regions of the world. Not mentioned in this hype is that these areas are so poor that they have no fats or oils available with which to cook food and that the mere cooking of vegetables in oil largely resolves the vitamin A issue. In fact, the same approach is true for improved nutrient bioavailability in developed countries. In one trial, merely adding soybean oil in salad dressing improved carotenoid and fat-soluble vitamin bioavailability in salad vegetables.20 Similarly, co-consuming cooked whole eggs is an effective way to enhance carotenoid absorption from other carotenoid-rich foods, such as a raw mixed-vegetable salad.21

    A word of caution on oils: Recent research strongly suggests that olive oil and coconut oil are preferable to soybean oil. "Rich in unsaturated fats, especially linoleic acid, soybean oil is assumed to be healthy, and yet it induces obesity, diabetes, insulin resistance, and fatty liver in mice."22,23 Moreover, in general the US diet exhibits an excessive and unhealthful ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acids.24 Butter, by the way, after years of condemnation, appears to be neutral as a fat for most purposes. A recent systematic review and meta-analysis suggests relatively small or neutral overall associations of butter with mortality, CVD, and diabetes.25,26 Any worries would appear to be easily overcome by simply eating more leafy green vegetables to increase daily magnesium intake!27

    HCA and a Largely Unknown Positive Combination
    One of the more interesting compounds available in the American health food market, albeit of highly variable and often suspect quality, is (–)-hydroxycitric acid (HCA, always sold as a salt) (extracted from Garcinia cambogia, G. atroviridis, G. indica and other G. species).28 Medically, HCA has been shown to exhibit potential additive effects of with, for instance, atorvastatin treated hyperlipidemic patients.29 Almost never pointed out by the marketers of HCA is that the compound's mechanism of action is inhibited by diets that are very high in fats and/or alcohol just as the mechanism is not operational under fasting conditions. Just as an inadequate level of intake or the intake of poor quality salts leads to a failure to achieve benefits, so does intake under improper conditions.30,31,32 One approach to preserving benefits even in the face of high fat and/or high alcohol intake is to ingest HCA along with the phytonutrient known as caffeic acid. Caffeic acid is found in quite small amounts in some, but not all green coffee bean extracts; it should not be confused with chlorgenic or caffeoquinic acids.33,34 Effectively using HCA with a coffee extract to reduce the reverse effects of fat and alcohol is patented.35

    Two Bad Combinations Typical of the American Diet
    Just as there are "good" nutrient combinations, such as examined above, there are "bad" nutrient combinations. Sugars and refined carbohydrates increase the absorption of fats from meals while reducing the oxidation of fats for energy. The evidence against coupling refined carbohydrates and fats is clear and unambiguous. Similarly, there is an unfortunate interplay between the consumption of sugars/ refined carbohydrates and table salt leading to impaired blood pressure regulation.36

    • Low glycemic index diets improve glycemic (blood sugar) response and variability as well as promote the metabolism of fat for energy; they may promote long-term health.37,38
    • Taken in a milkshake, fructose (30 g) increased postprandial lipemia by 37 percent compared with control; glucose (17.5 g) increased postprandial lipemia by 59 percent.39 (Lipemia is the presence in the blood of an abnormally high concentration of emulsified fat, meaning primarily triglycerides, not cholesterol.)
    • In Syndrome X/insulin resistant subjects (BMI of 30), glucose consumption (50 g) led to a 15.9 percent greater glycemic response and a 30.9 percent greater insulin response than did fructose (50 g). This is true in part because fructose is processed in the liver and then released later as glucose and/or converted into fat.
    • On an energy balanced diet in these same subjects, fructose compared with glucose increased carbohydrate oxidation 31 percent, but decreased fat oxidation by 39 percent.40
    • Low-fat/high-carbohydrate diets in Syndrome X individuals reduce levels of HDL cholesterol and increase triacylglycerol concentrations.41
    • Sucrose is glucose + fructose; lactose is glucose + galactose; grape sugar (dextrose) is glucose.

    Conclusion
    The benefits of foods and the nutrients that they supply, as also is true of supplements, is highly dependent on food and nutrient combinations. Many nutrients that clinically are inactive on their own, including even at large levels of intake, are beneficial when consumed with appropriate partners. Resveratrol, so often associated with red wine and the French paradox, is but one example of this phenomenon. Many other everyday combinations, such as magnesium and potassium, similarly exhibit positive dose relations. Contrarily, certain combinations are not good if habitually practiced. The combination of sugars/refined carbohydrates with fats, such as the far too widely consumed omega-6 fatty acids found in, for instance, soybean oil, is one example of a pairing that, if consumed regularly, tends to impair aspects of metabolism, including the oxidation of fats for energy. Likewise, consumption patterns that couple sugars with salt can lead to health consequences, such as blood pressure dysregulation, not typical of either nutrient consumed by itself.

    References:

    1. Beyond Synergy-the Entourage Effect in Nutrition and Herbalism TotalHealth Sep 2015
    2. http://www.geoba.se/population.php?pc=world&page=1&type=15&st=rank&asde=&year=2015
    3. http://www.worldlifeexpectancy.com/cause-of-death/coronary-heart-disease/by-country/
    4. http://www.fathead-movie.com/index.php/2013/01/14/usda-report-we-eat-less-fat-but-fat-is-killing-us
    5. http://www.foodnavigator-usa.com/Science/Americans-are-eating-10g-less-fat-per-day-than-they-did-in-the-late-1970s
    6. Bland J. Resveratrol opportunism: what is the science behind the claims? Integr Med Clin J. 2009;7(6):50–1 and the response by Evans JL, Clouatre DL. Reservations about the Resveratrol Article. Integr Med Clin J. 2009;8(3):16–8.
    7. Soleas GJ, Diamandis EP, Goldberg DM. Wine as a biological fluid: history, production, and role in disease prevention. J Clin Lab Anal. 1997;11(5):287–313.
    8. Chan MM, Mattiacci JA, Hwang HS, Shah A, Fong D. Synergy between ethanol and grape polyphenols, quercetin, and resveratrol, in the inhibition of the inducible nitric oxide synthase pathway. Biochem Pharmacol. 2000;60(10):1539–548.
    9. Zou JG, Wang ZR, Huang YZ, Cao KJ, Wu JM. Effect of red wine and wine polyphenol resveratrol on endothelial function in hypercholesterolemic rabbits. Int J Mol Med. 2003;11(3):317–20.
    10. Pearson KJ, Baur JA, Lewis KN, et al. Resveratrol delays age-related deterioration and mimics transcriptional aspects of dietary restriction without extending life span. Cell Metab.2008;8(2):157–68.
    11. Khor TO, Yu S, Kong AN. Dietary cancer chemopreventive agents—targeting inflammation and Nrf2 signaling pathway. Planta Med. 2008;74(13):1540–47.
    12. Biesinger S, Michaels HA, Quadros AS, Qian Y, Rabovsky AB, Badger RS, Jalili T. A combination of isolated phytochemicals and botanical extracts lowers diastolic blood pressure in a randomized controlled trial of hypertensive subjects. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2016 Jan;70(1):10-6.
    13. Xue M, Weickert MO, Qureshi S, Kandala NB, Anwar A, Waldron M, Shafie A, Messenger D, Fowler M, Jenkins G, Rabbani N, Thornalley PJ. Improved Glycemic Control and Vascular Function in Overweight and Obese Subjects by Glyoxalase 1 Inducer Formulation. Diabetes. 2016 Aug;65(8):2282-94.
    14. Sun Y, Byon CH, Yang Y, Bradley WE, Dell'Italia LJ, Sanders PW, Agarwal A, Wu H, Chen Y. Dietary potassium regulates vascular calcification and arterial stiffness. JCI Insight. 2017 Oct 5;2(19). pii: 94920.
    15. Linder, Maria C, ed., "Nutritional Biochemistry and Metabolism" (1991) 197–202.
    16. DeFronzo RA, Felig P, Ferrannini E, Wahren J. Effect of graded doses of insulin on splanchnic and peripheral potassium metabolism in man. Am J Physiol. 1980 May;238(5):E421–7.
    17. Altura BM, Altura BT. New perspectives on the role of magnesium in the pathophysiology of the cardiovascular system. II. Experimental aspects. Magnesium. 1985;4(5-6):245–71.
    18. Karppanen H. An antihypertensive salt: crucial role of Mildred Seelig in its development. J Am Coll Nutr. 1994 Oct;13(5):493–5.
    19. Sarkkinen ES, Kastarinen MJ, Niskanen TH, Karjalainen PH, Venäläinen TM, Udani JK, Niskanen LK. Feasibility and antihypertensive effect of replacing regular salt with mineral salt -rich in magnesium and potassium- in subjects with mildly elevated blood pressure. Nutr J. 2011 Sep 2;10:88.
    20. White WS, Zhou Y, Crane A, Dixon P, Quadt F, Flendrig LM. Modeling the dose effects of soybean oil in salad dressing on carotenoid and fat-soluble vitamin bioavailability in salad vegetables. Am J Clin Nutr. 2017 Oct;106(4):1041–51.
    21. Kim JE, Gordon SL, Ferruzzi MG, Campbell WW. Effects of egg consumption on carotenoid absorption from co-consumed, raw vegetables. Am J Clin Nutr. 2015 Jul;102(1):75–83.
    22. Deol P, Fahrmann J, Yang J, Evans JR, Rizo A, Grapov D, Salemi M, Wanichthanarak K, Fiehn O, Phinney B, Hammock BD, Sladek FM. Omega-6 and omega-3 oxylipins are implicated in soybean oil-induced obesity in mice. Sci Rep. 2017 Oct 2;7(1):12488.
    23. Deol P, Evans JR, Dhahbi J, Chellappa K, Han DS, Spindler S, Sladek FM. Soybean Oil Is More Obesogenic and Diabetogenic than Coconut Oil and Fructose in Mouse: Potential Role for the Liver. PLoS One. 2015 Jul 22;10(7):e0132672.
    24. Lazic M, Inzaugarat ME, Povero D, Zhao IC, Chen M, Nalbandian M, Miller YI, Cherñavsky AC, Feldstein AE, Sears DD. Reduced dietary omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acid ratio and 12/15-lipoxygenase deficiency are protective against chronic high fat diet-induced steatohepatitis. PLoS One. 2014 Sep 24;9(9):e107658.
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    27. Kummerow FA, Wasowicz E, Smith T, Yoss NL, Thiel J. Plasma lipid physical properties in swine fed margarine or butter in relation to dietary magnesium intake. J Am Coll Nutr. 1993 Apr;12(2):125–32.
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    33. Tsuda S, Egawa T, Ma X, Oshima R, Kurogi E, Hayashi T. Coffee polyphenol caffeic acid but not chlorogenic acid increases 5'AMP-activated protein kinase and insulin-independent glucose transport in rat skeletal muscle. J Nutr Biochem. 2012 Nov;23(11):1403–9.
    34. Liao CC, Ou TT, Huang HP, Wang CJ. The inhibition of oleic acid induced hepatic lipogenesis and the promotion of lipolysis by caffeic acid via up regulation of AMP-activated kinase. J Sci Food Agric.2014 Apr;94(6):1154–62.
    35. United States Patent 9,789,076 –– Bolus dose of hydroxycitric acid with glycerol.
    36. Preuss HG, Clouatre D, Swaroop A, Bagchi M, Bagchi D, Kaats GR. Blood Pressure Regulation: Reviewing Evidence for Interplay Between Common Dietary Sugars and Table Salt. J Am Coll Nutr. 2017 Sep 29:1–8.
    37. Henry CJ, Kaur B, Quek RYC, Camps SG. A Low Glycaemic Index Diet Incorporating Isomaltulose Is Associated with Lower Glycaemic Response and Variability, and Promotes Fat Oxidation in Asians. Nutrients. 2017 May 9;9(5).
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    40. Tittelbach TJ, Mattes RD, Gretebeck RJ. Post-exercise substrate utilization after a high glucose vs. high fructose meal during negative energy balance in the obese. Obes Res 2000 Oct;8(7):496–505.
    41. Poppitt SD, Keogh GF, Prentice AM, Williams DE, Sonnemans HM, Valk EE, Robinson E, Wareham NJ. Long-term effects of ad libitum
    42. low-fat, high-carbohydrate diets on body weight and serum lipids in overweight subjects with metabolic syndrome. Am J Clin Nutr. 2002 Jan;75(1):11–20.
  • Sierrasil, A Joint Pain Product That Works, Naturally

    Results from a clinical trial published in the international Journal of Inflammation demonstrate that SierraSil®, a powerful, uniquely balanced blend of numerous naturally occurring macro and trace minerals, is safe and effective for significantly decreasing pain and inflammation in patients with osteoarthritis.*

    Mark Miller, Ph.D., and Professor of Cardiovascular Sciences and Pediatrics at Albany Medical College (NY), supervised the study and was instrumental in the in-depth analysis of its data. “SierraSil,” said Miller, “may offer exciting new approaches to limiting the joint destruction and lack of mobility associated with arthritis.”

    The SierraSil product for this study was provided by Sierra Mountain Minerals, Inc. Michael Bentley, the company’s Executive Vice President and Chief Operating Officer, is more than pleased with this latest testament to the effectiveness of SierraSil.

    “We know from past trials, patient testimonials and reports from physicians that SierraSil improves joint mobility and flexibility,”* said Bentley. “Now, we see how important it can be as a support to those suffering from the pain of osteoarthritis.”*

    An emerging supplement in the battle against inflammation, SierraSil is found only in the high Sierra Mountains.

    The human body can make many vitamins, amino acids, fatty acids and their derivative molecules, but it cannot make a single mineral. Due to mineral depletion in soil, some doctors say people cannot rely on getting all of these necessary nutrients from food. Also, when minerals are not consumed in adequate amounts, the body will resort to stealing minerals from its fluids, soft tissues and bones.

    That’s why many health professionals advise people to use supplements rich in macro and trace minerals. SierraSil is considered an excellent mineral supplement because it is comprised of numerous naturally occurring macro- and trace minerals including calcium, potassium, magnesium, copper, iron, zinc, phosphorus, manganese, selenium, vanadium, chromium, boron and molybdenum in a form that possesses unusual health-promoting properties.

    SierraSil helped pro golfer Ken Venturi. A former US Open Champion and 1964 Sports Illustrated Sportsman of the Year, Venturi gave up playing golf due to hand injuries. Finally, after a distinguished 35-year career of broadcasting as CBS Golf Analyst, Ken is playing golf again—thanks to SierraSil. Venturi says, “I believe in this product so very much that I’m willing to endorse it. It can help you, because it helped me. And what it’s done for me most of all, it’s given me back the game of golf, which I love so much. Without it I wouldn’t be able to hit golf balls.”

    Is Ken alone in his discovery? Absolutely not! Al Stonehouse, Senior Men’s Captain at Kelowna Golf and Country Club read about Ken’s success with SierraSil and gave it a try. “I have achieved remarkable success with SierraSil,” Stonehouse said. “Normally I am very reluctant to try any form of drug or supplement but after reading about the success achieved by Ken Venturi, I decided to give it a try. Within days I noticed improved flexibility with my golf swing, increased driving distance and reduced carpal-tunnel pain in my hands. It’s great to be able to play three to four rounds a week and not have to go through the pain and suffering that I had been accustomed to for the past few years. I’m hitting the ball further than ever! I have had no hesitation in recommending SierraSil to my golfing friends. Thanks for making golf the pleasurable experience it should be.”

    SierraSil is completely natural and vegetarian. It contains no glucosamine or chondroitin and exhibits beneficial properties even in small amounts. Only two to three grams a day are needed. Unlike other well-known joint support supplements, like glucosamine and chondroitin, which reportedly take up to three months to work, many SierraSil users are reporting noticeable benefits in less than two weeks.*

    The past Vioxx recall led a number of health care professionals and consumers to take a closer look at natural approaches to joint health. Even the Arthritis Foundation, which only twelve years ago discouraged the use of supplements, is now encouraging its members to explore exercise, a healthy diet and dietary supplements. “Dietary supplements present a safe and effective long-term option, and consumers have a wide range of options when deciding which approach is right for them,” said James LaValle, R.Ph., N.D., an expert on naturopathic medicine. “The Vioxx recall should serve as a wake-up call. The truth of the matter is that in some cases there are serious side effects with prescription drugs,” Dr. LaValle said. “The good news is that there are safe and effective dietary supplements that are a better first choice for improving joint health.”

    For more information please visit www.SierraSil.com.

    The complete clinical trial report is available at the Journal of Inflammation's website:
    www.journal-inflammation.com/content/2/1/11/abstract.

  • SierraSil: A New Joint Pain Solution

    Some diseases, or health conditions, seem to be women’s issues. Arthritis and osteoporosis are in that category. Although men also struggle with joint inflammation and bone loss, the literature focuses on women. Are women at greater risk? According to the research, they are. Over 50 percent of women will suffer an osteoporotic bone break, while just one in eight men will experience an episode of fracture due to bone loss. Arthritis statistics are similar. While younger men are more likely to experience arthritis, due to accidents and injuries, the disease is three times more prevalent in women after the age of 45.


    The bones and joints are not the only parts of the body affected by inflammation. Research now correlates chronic inflammation with obesity, hypothyroidism, heart disease (yes, heart disease is a woman’s issue), diabetes, and Alzheimer’s disease. It is clear, then, that if women are to thrive through their senior years, they must develop a strategy for dealing with “the body on fire.”

    Fortunately, minerals from the rocky reaches of the Sierra Nevada mountains provide an excellent way to dampen the fires of inflammation, wherever they occur in the body. SierraSil® is a blend of over 65 naturally-occurring minerals that have been shown, in both in vitro and human studies, to “shut off the genetic switch to inflammation.”

    What Is It About Minerals?
    When we discuss chronic inflammation, we seldom mention minerals, but these essential nutrients play a vital role in bone and joint integrity, and they confer powerful anti-inflammatory benefits. The research community is just now delving into the world of minerals and beginning to understand their diverse and complex roles in the human body. They participate in the structural integrity of the body and catalyze enzymatic reactions. They help regulate the pH of the body.

    One of the most important tasks of minerals, particularly the unique blend of minerals in SierraSil, is that they help regulate the genetic expression of inflammation. To understand how this works, Sierra Mountain Minerals embarked on a series of human studies to assess both the safety and efficacy of SierraSil. One hundred twenty study participants were asked to answer the following question: Is SierraSil safe, and is SierraSil effective in reducing osteoarthritis symptoms?

    The treatment protocol lasted for eight weeks, and at the conclusion of the trial, researchers and patients found that every marker of arthritis (pain, stiffness and function) was greatly improved. Equally important, SierraSil was completely safe.

    SierraSil has been used clinically to relieve the pain of injury, fibromyalgia, colitis, and many other sources of pain. Benefits generally appear within seven to ten days, and without side effects. The recommended dose is three capsules each morning on an empty stomach.

    One medical doctor in Canada is testing C-reactive protein levels (a marker for inflammation) in his pain patients who have been using SierraSil for several years, and finds that their inflammatory markers are low, a sign that the inflammation, wherever it has lodged in the body, is abating.

    What else can women (and men) do to improve joint and bone health? Remove inflammatory foods like red meat, sugar, alcohol, and grains from the diet. Red meat contains a fatty acid called arachidonic acid, a precursor to pro-inflammatory hormones called eicosanoids. Grains, sugar and alcohol are highly acidic foods; low pH levels are associated with inflammation. Grains, particularly wheat and corn, are problematic in terms of allergies, an inflammatory process.

    An anti-inflammatory diet provides seven to eight servings of fresh vegetables per day, plenty of oils like fish, flax and olive oil, and good sources of protein like organic poultry, wild-raised seafood and lamb (preferably organic).

    Lifestyle factors can be either pro- or anti-inflammatory as well. Get plenty of sleep; it is during the dark hours of the night that the body repairs itself and the bones are built. Stress can heighten inflammation. Women often juggle two full-time jobs: employment outside the home and the care of the home and family. Since they seldom take time to rest and recover, the continual stress can cause pain.

    Restoring the integrity of the bones and resolving joint inflammation starts with diet and lifestyle, but well-chosen supplements are a vital part of the diet. Since both osteoporosis and arthritis share a common link in inflammation, as well as the other “illnesses of inflammation,” it makes sense to supplement with an anti-inflammatory mineral blend like SierraSil.

  • Vitamin K2: The Missing Nutrient for Heart and Bone Health

    “If calcium is so bad for my heart, why should I be taking a calcium supplement for my bones?”

    This is a question I hear frequently in my office and one that causes me great concern.

    Bone health is important throughout your life. Osteoporosis and bone fractures, similar to cardiovascular disease, are not just the problems of old age. Like the heart and the blood vessels, the health of our bones is something we usually do not think about much. Then, a problem arises—such as a hip fracture—and just like the cardiovascular system, it is too late to make any real impact.

    The one thing most people will do to support their bone health is take a calcium supplement, which is important due to the fact our bodies cannot produce calcium on their own, and calcium plays a role in many of the body’s systems. But too much calcium in the body left unattended can have a negative effect, such as depositing in the arteries and blood vessels causing calcification. This calcification causes stiffening that puts a strain on the cardiovascular system.

    When my friend, an integrative general practitioner, asked if I was recommending vitamin K2 to my patients, I was surprised. What is vitamin K2? I decided to find out. I was shocked—and excited—at how much good research supported this nutrient for bone and heart health.

    The discovery of this amazing body of research was the motivation behind my new book, “Vitamin K2: The Missing Nutrient for Heart and Bone Health.” It is important that patients as well as health care professionals understand the benefit of this important nutrient and the scientific evidence supporting it.

    What is Vitamin K2?
    Vitamin K2 is part of the vitamin K family, a group of fatsoluble vitamins. Vitamin K is split into two groups: vitamin K1 and vitamin K2. The difference lies on a molecular level. Vitamin K1 has one molecule, so it is a phylloquinone. The K2 group has multiple molecules and known as menaquinones.

    While K vitamins are crucial for blood clotting, vitamin K2, unlike K1, is utilized by the liver and then is available to tissues beyond the liver, such as the bones, arteries and blood vessels. So why is vitamin K2 so valuable?

    Simply put, vitamin K2 is the body’s light switch. It activates or “turns on” important proteins in the body such as osteocalcin for strong bones and the matrix Gla protein (MGP) in the arteries and blood vessels. By turning on these vitamin K2 dependent proteins, calcium is kept out of the arteries (where it can cause hardening of arteries and blockages) and transported and kept in the bones where it belongs.

    Although vitamin K2 is a relative newcomer to the supplement arena, I believe there is now enough scientific evidence to make you take notice and add it to your list of essential nutrients. While I will focus on vitamin K2’s proven cardiovascular benefits, a multitude of studies have also demonstrated vitamin K2’s effectiveness for bone health and children’s health. And more research is being done every day to support its benefits in these crucial areas to the general population.

    Undeniable Evidence
    Let’s start with the evidence of vitamin K2’s role in calcification. The landmark Rotterdam population cohort study examined vitamin K2 in a normal human population, and was the first large clinical study to suggest the huge impact vitamin K2 may play in reducing cardiovascular events and mortality. Results among 4,807 healthy individuals (at the start of the study) age 55 and older, suggested a strong protective effect of the highest dietary vitamin K2 intake on arterial calcification. The study showed a reduction in risk for cardiovascular diseases and cardiovascular disease-related deaths by as much as 50 percent for subjects who ingested more vitamin K2. High intakes of vitamin K2 also reduced the all-cause mortality by 25 percent.

    Dietary vitamin K1, obtained from green vegetables, had no influence on excessive calcium accumulation, even when consumed in much larger quantities than K2.

    Another study in Nutrition, Metabolism, & Cardiovascular Diseases looked at the effect of vitamin K2 on arterial function, or the ability to contract and relax blood vessels. A group of 16,057 women (all free of cardiovascular diseases at baseline) aged 49–70 years were followed for eight years. The final results were again really promising: K2 vitamins were shown to reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases. The risk of coronary heart disease dropped nine percent for every 10 micrograms of vitamin K2 (MK-7, MK- 8, and MK-9) subjects consumed. Vitamin K1 intake had no effect.

    If you are still not convinced that vitamin K2 delivers important cardiovascular benefits, there is one exciting clinical study that has really captured my attention recently and was published this year in the journal Thrombosis and Haemostasis. It shows a nutritional dose (180 mcg) of specific vitamin K2 called MenaQ7 taken daily for three years not only inhibited age-related stiffening of the artery walls, but also made significant improvements in artery flexibility—meaning calcification was actually regressed, leaving arteries healthier and more flexible.

    This study is a breakthrough because it is the first intervention trial where the results confirm the association made by previous population-based studies: that vitamin K2 intake is linked to cardiovascular risk. According to the researchers, the data demonstrated that a nutritional dose of vitamin K2 can in fact promote cardiovascular health.

    Completing the Health Picture
    The four keys to good health for everyone are nutrition (including supplements), exercise, stress management and sleep. Pills alone are not the solution, but I feel very strongly that supplements fill the nutritional gaps our diets are lacking. Vitamin K2 should be taken along with vitamin D and calcium, and it’s best to look for one supplement that contains all three ingredients combined, especially the clinically studied MenaQ7 form of vitamin K2 that can be found listed as such on the nutritional label.

    Finally, I want to emphasize that you must be proactive with your health, and I encourage you to make your doctor an active partner in your pursuit of well-being. Discuss your health goals and concerns with your physician for a personal roadmap on how to get there.