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Aged Garlic Extract

  • Although preventable, cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains the leading cause of death worldwide, accounting for an estimated 32% of all deaths worldwide1. Risk factors of heart disease and stroke include a poor diet, lack of physical activity, smoking, high blood pressure, elevated cholesterol, and being overweight or obese, most of which are modifiable. Many people transition to a plant-based diet to lower their risk for chronic disease as plant-based diets have been repeatedly associated with improved health markers and disease prevention. However, if not done properly, a plant-based diet may do more harm than good when it comes to your health. Here are the best strategies for promoting heart health when going vegan.

    Prioritize Wholesome Plant-Based Foods

    Even the American Heart Association agrees that eating a plant-based diet at any age can reduce the risk for CVD2. However, being plant-based or vegan does not automatically mean that a food is good for you. Highly processed plant-based foods such as meat analogs, baked goods, frozen meals, fried foods, salty snacks, fruit juices, refined grains, and frozen desserts, are often loaded with saturated oils, salt, and sugar, which can lead to undesirable health complications. They are also often high in calories with very little nutritional value. In fact, one study suggests that some meat alternatives provide a higher content of saturated fat and sodium than their animal meat counterparts.3

    eating wholesome foods

    Instead, focus on consuming wholesome foods that have not been processed. These include fruits, vegetables, whole grains, legumes, nuts and seeds, and should make up for the majority of your daily caloric intake. These foods are high in dietary fiber, vitamins and minerals while being naturally low in calories, saturated fat and sodium. In one study, plant-based diets consisting of mostly non-processed foods lowered CVD risk by 52%.4 Keep processed foods to a minimum and be mindful of salt consumption. Diets high in sodium are associated with increased blood pressure and a higher risk for heart failure, stroke and heart attack.5 In addition to lowering your consumption of processed foods, another way to decrease your sodium intake is to season your foods with salt-free spices, fresh herbs, garlic and onions. Lowering your consumption of frozen prepared meals, salty snacks such as potato chips, canned foods and meat alternatives can also be an effective way to lower sodium intake.

    The cardio-protective benefits of wholesome plant foods lies in their ability to improve CVD markers. In fact, a whole-food, plant-based diet has been shown to improve high blood pressure, high cholesterol, impaired blood circulation, body weight, and inflammatory markers such as C-reactive protein.6 However, plant eaters may find it challenging to obtain all their nutrients from the diet as they would have to consume very high volumes of food and some plant foods lack essential vitamins and minerals. Therefore, plant-based diets should be paired with the right supplementation as supplements play an important role in supplying adequate amounts of essential nutrients, as well as supporting heart health and lowering disease risk.

    Take A Heart-Healthy Supplement

    Fish oil is a popular supplement that has been shown to provide some cardiovascular health benefits. This is due to the high content of unsaturated fatty acids in fish, which may reduce blood pressure, lower triglyceride levels and improve overall cholesterol level, a risk factor for heart disease.7 Fish oil is not the end-all for heart health, however, and they are not a vegan-friendly option. Other supplements have been shown to be favorable for heart health that is suitable for plant-based eaters. Many may turn to algae-based omega-3 supplements, however, the research on algae supplementation is quite limited, and many algae oil supplements have a lower recommended dose of omega-3 fatty acids than fish oil.

    A better option for vegans can be found in a supplement called, Aged Garlic Extract (AGE), which has been thoroughly studied and backed by research. Garlic has been used for centuries as a natural way to enhance health. But, when it comes to the heart, AGE is the real key to unlocking garlic's cardiovascular benefits. AGE has been shown to improve heart disease risk factors such as high cholesterol, high blood pressure and clogged arteries.8,9,10 So why not just simply eat raw garlic instead? The proprietary aging process to make AGE increases garlic's antioxidant power, removes its strong odor, and concentrates its benefits. In short, the AGE is far more potent than raw garlic. In fact, you would have to eat up to 28 garlic cloves daily to get these same benefits you would find in a couple of AGE capsules, which is not realistic nor recommended as it can cause digestive discomfort.

    Similar to many supplements out there, not all AGE supplements are vegan. When selecting supplements, vegans still need to be cautious as many supplements contain animal ingredients such as gelatin (from animal skin and bones) and beeswax to encapsulate the nutrients. So it's important for those following a plant-based diet to read the supplement labels carefully and choose an AGE supplement that also indicates it is a vegan formula. Because it is easy to consume, odorless, and leaves no aftertaste, AGE supplements are also great for those who want an alternative to the fishy taste of fish oil and algae oil supplements.

    Incorporate The Right Types Of Exercise Into Your Routine

    proper exercise

    Eating a wholesome plant-based diet and taking a vegan aged garlic extract supplement are crucial steps towards preventing heart disease. Another important lifestyle habit to protect your heart is to exercise regularly. Being physically active is one of the most effective ways to strengthen your heart muscle and improve your muscles' ability to pull oxygen from the blood, reducing the heart's workload.11 Exercise is also a great tool for keeping a healthy body weight and improving cholesterol and blood pressure levels, all factors that lower the risk for CVD.11 Although there are many different types of exercise, the most effective way to incorporate movement into your daily routine is to find activities that you enjoy and to switch up types of activities regularly.

    There are two types of exercise you should incorporate into your routine - aerobic and strength training. Aerobic exercise improves blood circulation and lowers blood pressure and heart rate. It also improves your overall conditioning and how well your heart pumps.12 Examples of aerobic activities include running, brisk walking, swimming and cycling. Resistance training is a great way to create lean muscle mass and reduce body fat, which in turn improves cholesterol levels and heart health.13 Strength training includes working out with free weights such as dumbbells, and weight machines, as well as resistance bands or body-weight exercises. Recommendations for exercise are 150 minutes per week of moderate to intense exercise14 so 30 minutes per day, five days a week, is a great habit to adopt.

    Keeping A Healthy Heart For Years To Come

    Cardiovascular disease is responsible for hundreds of thousands of premature and preventable deaths in the United States every year. Taking a proactive approach to disease prevention involves more than doing your regular check-ups at the doctor. There are many vegan-friendly strategies for heart health that don't include fish oil or fish consumption. A wholesome plant-based diet, supplemented with heart-protective aged garlic extract, and regular physical activity, are effective tools to support a healthy heart and reduce your risk for cardiovascular disease. Adopting lifestyle changes, regardless of your age, is a proactive way to improve your overall health and disease prevention.

    Be mindful that switching to a fully vegan diet requires planning and intention, and should be done with the guidance of a health professional. If not done properly, a plant-based diet may result in nutrient deficiencies, which can lead to future health complications. Supplementation can be an effective and inexpensive way to prevent these nutrient deficiencies. Discussing your options with a nutritionist is recommended to maximize the health benefits of living a vegan life. Read more about supplements I recommend for a healthy vegan lifestyle at my site Hungry For Plants.

    1. Cardiovascular Diseases - World Health Organization
    2. Eating A Plant-Based Diet At Any Age May Lower Cardiovascular Risk - American Heart Association
    3. Nutritional Quality of Plant-Based Meat Products Available in the UK: A Cross-Sectional Survey - Nutrients
    4. Plant-Centered Diet and Risk of Incident Cardiovascular Disease During Young to Middle Adulthood - Journal of the American Heart Association
    5. Sodium Intake and Heart Failure - International Journal of Molecular Science
    6. Plant-Based Diets and Cardiovascular Health - Trends In Cardiovascular Medicine
    7. The Effects of Fish Oil on Cardiovascular Diseases: Systematical Evaluation and Recent Advance - Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
    8. Cholesterol-Lowering Effect of Garlic Extracts and Organosulfur Compounds: Human and Animal Studies - The Journal of Nutrition
    9. Aged Garlic Extract Reduces Blood Pressure In Hypertensives: A Dose-Response Trial - European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
    10. Aged garlic extract reduces low attenuation plaque in coronary arteries of patients with diabetes: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study - Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
    11. Effects of Exercise to Improve Cardiovascular Health - Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
    12. Exercise for Prevention and Relief of Cardiovascular Disease: Prognoses, Mechanisms, and Approaches - Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
    13. Cardiovascular Effects and Benefits of Exercise - Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
    14. Physical Activity Guidelines - American College of Sports Medicine
  • Garlic has been an important herbal remedy for centuries. Painted on the walls of Egyptian tombs and placed in the tombs, for consumption in the afterlife, as early as 3700 BC, garlic was used as a remedy for heart disease, cancer and other ailments, as documented in ancient Egyptian medical documents, dating from 1550 BC.

  • Garlic has been an important herbal remedy for centuries. Found in carvings and paintings on the walls of Egyptian tombs, dating from 3700 BC, garlic's uses as a remedy for cancer and other ailments are recorded in detail in Egyptian medical documents, dating from 1550 BC.

    Modern studies and human observations have validated many medicinal effects of garlic and its potential to help lower the risk of various ailments, including colon cancer. The cancer preventive mechanisms of garlic, shown largely through research using KyolicTM Aged Garlic Extract® (AGE), an odorless supplement made from organic garlic by Wakunaga of America, are largely due to potent antioxidants, a high content of organosulfur compounds, an ability to stimulate immunological responsiveness, detoxify carcinogens, inhibit inflammation and prevent mutations that may lead to cancer.

    Epidemiological Studies
    Several population studies have found an association between a high intake of garlic and a reduced risk of certain cancers, including stomach and colon cancer. An analysis of the results of these studies, showed, that the higher the amount of garlic consumed, the lower the risk of stomach and colon cancer.

    The "Iowa Women's Study"1 is a large prospective study investigating whether diet and other risk factors are related to cancer incidence in older women. Results of the study showed a strong association between garlic consumption and colon cancer risk. There was a 50 percent lower risk of colon cancer in women who consumed the highest amounts of garlic, compared to those consuming a low level.

    Several population studies conducted in China and Italy also showed repeatedly that consumption of allium vegetables, onions and especially garlic was associated with a reduced risk of stomach and colon cancer, sometimes as low as 50 percent.

    The Nature of Colon Cancer

    Colon Cancer is the third leading cause of deaths in the United States. It is a multistage disease that is initiated by a series of mutations in DNA that give rise to adenomatous polyps, of a benign nature, that may progress to full blown cancer. Colon cancer can have hereditary components, and is found in families, but external factors including environmental factors, lifestyle and diet play important role in the development of the disease.

    Colon cancer develops slowly, over a period of 10 to 15 years; though people over 50 are most prone to getting the disease, colon cancer can develop at any age. The disease usually begins as a non-cancerous polyp that can progress with time into cancer, screening by colonoscopy is effective in lowering the cancer risk and increasing the chance for cure, by detecting and removing emerging adenomatous polyps. Cancer screening by colonoscopy is recommended starting at the age of 50, though people with a family history of the disease may begin at an earlier age and be tested more often.

    Diet and Lifestyle in Prevention
    While screening is important in reducing risk, diet and lifestyle are critical in supporting the body's natural defenses, helping prevent the onset and growth of polyps and blocking their subsequent development into colon cancer.

    Leading a physically active life, maintaining a healthy weight, not smoking and reduced levels of alcohol are important aspects of prevention; as diet goes, a diet rich in plant food, low levels of red meat and intake of milk products that contain calcium and vitamin D are some of the recommendations by the American Cancer Society.

    Among the plant foods that have been associated with lowering the risk of colon cancer, garlic ranks as a highly effective protector. In some people a high consumption of fresh garlic may cause gastrointestinal adverse effects; such occurrences and the fact that the odor of garlic lingers on the skin and breath, prevents many from taking advantage of its health effects. Many have therefore turned to the odorless supplement Kyolic Aged Garlic Extract (AGE), as an effective way to seek protection against colon cancer. Currently, with over 700 scientific and medical publications showing the wide range of AGE health benefits, this odorless garlic supplement is the most researched and popular garlic supplement.

    AGE a Natural Protectant against Colon Cancer
    Kyolic Aged Garlic Extract (AGE), is produced by the Wakunaga Company from organically grown garlic, using a process of aging and extraction, at room temperature, for 20 months. Harsh volatile garlic components, such as allicin, are converted by this process to stable compounds, such as S-allyl cysteine, S-allyl mercaptocysteine and others. S-allyl cysteine is the major watersoluble organosulfur compound in AGE; it is a highly bioavailable and is used to standardize AGE, assuring quality control. The high quality control of AGE insures consistent efficacy in helping sustain consumer health, remaining the choice garlic preparation in clinical studies and research on the health effects of a garlic. AGE lacks harsh or toxic compounds, and can be ingested safely for years, for its health effects.

    The wide range of AGE¡¦s anticancer actions has been reported in studies using model systems. Findings show that AGE and its organosulfur constituents inhibited colon cancer in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, AGE stimulated colon and liver glutathione S-transferases, enzymes assist in detoxifying carcinogens. Other studies have shown that AGE and its compounds with their high antioxidant action show anti-carcinogenic actions by scavenging toxic reactive oxygen species, unstable molecules that are waste products in metabolism, which have the ability to trigger cancer-mutations in DNA. Other effects of AGE found experimentally, were an inhibition of the binding of carcinogens to DNA, detoxifying carcinogens, blocking the proliferation of colon cancer cells and killing them by apoptosis, a mechanism of programmed cell death.

    Human Studies

    While epidemiological studies have shown the efficacy of garlic in lowering colon cancer risk, and experimental models found AGE and its components, largely water soluble S-ally cysteine and S-allyl-mercaptocysteine have anti-carcinogenic effects, the protective action of AGE and its efficacy in lowering the risk of colon cancer in humans had to be established by a clinical study.

    To determine a potential protection against colon cancer in humans, Tanaka2 and colleagues carried out a randomized, double-blind, clinical trial, using high intake of AGE (AGE 2.4 ml/day) as an active treatment and low-dose AGE (AGE 0.16 ml/day) as a control.

    The study enrolled 51 patients who were diagnosed with adenomatous polyps. Investigators assigned the patients randomly to two groups, after removing adenomas that were larger than 5 mm in diameter. Using colonoscopy, the investigators determined the number and size of adenomas before the patients began the intake of AGE (0 months) and at six and twelve months after intake. There were thirty-seven patients who completed the study; 19 in the active group, receiving AGE and 18 in the control group, receiving placebo.

    The investigators found that in the control group the number of adenomas increased in linear fashion from the beginning of the study (baseline point); by contrast, in the group taking the high dose of AGE the size and number of adenomas were significantly suppressed, after the 12 months of treatment. These findings showed that the intake of Kyolic AGE has the potential to protect humans against colon cancer, by preventing the progression of precancerous colon adenomas into colon cancer.

    The clinical study, showing AGE as a supplement with potential preventive effects against human colon cancer, adds to the results of several epidemiological studies showing a reduction of colon cancer by high garlic consumption.

    At this point, with overwhelming evidence of garlic protection against colon cancer, it should be noted that a recent single prospective study from Harvard Medical School3, did not find a protective effect by the intake of fresh garlic. The study did not include AGE.

    To possibly understand the discrepancy in results, it should be realized that the findings of efficacy by AGE in inhibiting the growth of precancerous adenomas and potentially inhibiting colon cancer, is partly due to the high standardization of its active ingredients. This is in contrast to fresh garlic cloves that cannot be standardized in the same way.

    Depending on the conditions of their cultivation, garlic bulbs may contain up to 33 different lipid- and water-soluble organosulfur compounds, with varying inhibitory effects on colon cancer, as shown in laboratory studies.

    In a prospective study, unknown are the number of bulbs (that means the dose of garlic components), that would be required for human intake to have an inhibitory effect on colon cancer. Food preparation methods are known to affect the potency of sulfur compounds in garlic. For example, microwave heating and oven cooking block the anti-cancer activity of some compounds in the fresh garlic. The Harvard study had no biomarkers that reflected the actual active garlic component in the human body.

    By contrast, AGE is prepared at room temperature, with no heating in the process of its production, preserving its anticancer activity; in addition, S-allyl cysteine, the most prevalent organosulfur compound in AGE, has been shown experimentally to have a 98 percent bioavailability; this means it can be used potentially as a marker to reflect the intake of Aged Garlic Extract components.


    1. Steinmetz KA, KushiLH, Bostick RM, et al Vegetables, fruit and colon cancer in the Iowa Women's Health Study. Am J. Epidemio.1994: 139:1-13.
    2. Tanaka S, Haruma K, Yoshihara M, Kajiyama G, Kira K, et al. Aged garlic extract has potential suppressive effect on colorectal adenomas in humans. J Nutr. 2006; 136:821S-826S.
    3. Meng S, Zhang X, Giovannucci EL, et al No association between garlic intake and risk of colorectal cancer. Cancer Epidemiol. In Press; On line Dec 12 2012.
  • Research on the efficacy of garlic and aged garlic extract in eliminating yeast infections has focused in recent years on the potential therapeutic actions of their components, which in team fashion are strengthened in acting as remedies and providing health benefits.

    Candida, the Infective Fungus
    Candida albicans (C. albicans) is the most prevalent fungal pathogen in humans, causing various forms of infection, called Candidiasis that range from superficial infections of organ linings to life-threatening systemic diseases, especially in immuno-compromised patients with AIDS, cancer or organ transplantation, indicating that the mammalian immune system is a primary barrier to infectious agents.

    Candida normally exists in small amounts in the human body. Present in the oral and vaginal lining, the organism can transform itself to a highly virulent form that can be lifethreatening, particularly in patients with weakened immunity.

    The virulence factors of C. albicans include changes to an invasive form, adhesion to host cells and escaping host immune system.

    A limited number of anti-fungal treatments are available, but these remedies often have unpleasant side effects. In addition Candida acquires resistance, requiring a switch in medication or an increase in dose. In a move to find sources of treatment other than the accepted medications fluconazole or amphotericin women have sought natural, non-drug therapy to eliminate the fungal infection.

    The Nature of Candida
    Candida albicans (C. albicans) is a form of yeast and a cause of oral and genital infections in humans, mostly women. Invasion of C. albicans into the blood is considered an important cause of disease and death in immuno-compromised patients (e.g., patients with AIDS, those receiving cancer chemotherapy, or those undergoing organ or bone marrow transplantation). C. albicans forms bio-films on surfaces of implanted medical devices, increasing risk of infection. A major cause of concern in hospitals are hospital-acquired Candida infections, in patients who had not been considered at risk, for example, patients in intensive care units.

    C. albicans is one of many organisms that reside in the human mouth and gastrointestinal tract. Under normal conditions, C. albicans lives in 80 percent of the population, causing no harm; but overgrowth results in candidiasis. To infect tissues, the single cell form of C. albicans reacts to environmental signals and switches into an invasive form that contains many cells and has filaments (hyphae). These filaments are an essential step for C. albicans to become virulent and cause infections that can become systemic. The switch in form and the addition of the hyphae is largely controlled by a gene called SIR2.

    Candidiasis and Women
    Candidiasis affects around 75 percent of women, at some point in life. Symptoms of this yeast infection may vary, depending on the affected areas. Infection of the vagina or vulva causes severe itching, burning, soreness and a discharge; using douches for vaginal cleansing disturbs the normal vaginal flora that includes lactic acid bacteria, such as Lactobacilli, causing an overgrowth of Candida cells, promoting infection and local inflammation. The risk of Candidiasis increases during pregnancy, in the use of oral contraceptives, during hormone replacement therapy, and infertility treatments. Antibiotic use is also linked to an increased incidence of yeast infections, as is wearing of a wet swimsuits for long periods of time, as moisture increases Candida infection.

    Medical treatment of vaginal Candidiasis by anti-fungal drugs is effective to a large extent but C. albicans develops resistance to medications, over time, and the infection returns.

    For example, a popular oral medication, fluconazole, may be partially effective in treating a vaginal yeast infection, but as resistance develops over time the dose must be increased or one must switch to another medication. Many women, concerned by possible adverse effects of the medications prefer natural cures over the use of drugs.

    Garlic and Kyolic Aged Garlic Extract
    Garlic contains compounds with antifungal activity but many shun the fresh bulb, because of the pungent garlic odor that lingers on the skin and breath, compromising social activities and the potential of adverse gastric effects. The solution, as many sufferers of C. albicans have found out, can be a daily consumption of the odorless garlic preparation, Kyolic Aged Garlic Extract (AGE) that has antifungal compound and in addition enhances immunity.

    Kyolic AGE is made by the Wakunaga of America, by a slow extraction and aging process, at room temperature; it contains largely water soluble compounds, such as S-allyl cysteine and S-allyl mercaptocysteine, as well as lipid soluble organosulfur compounds, such as Diallyl disulfide (DADS) and other beneficial compounds.

    AGE is the most popular garlic supplement; it is rich in antioxidants, that help increase the power of the immune system; it has high bioavailability and its manufacturing is regulated by dependable quality control; AGE, standardized by the water soluble organosulfur compound, S-allyl cysteine, has a wide range of health effects that often surpass those of fresh garlic. Being odorless, its consumption does not have the potential anti-social drawbacks or gastrointestinal adverse effects that accompany the eating of large amounts of fresh garlic.

    Garlic Extract Compounds as Therapeutic as Anti-Candida Agents
    Over the last few years preclinical experiments have supported the action of garlic compounds as therapeutic agents against Candida infections, as the ubiquitous opportunistic pathogen C. albicans was found to be sensitive to garlic. AGE, contains compounds called saponins, with a particular saponin Eruboside B found by Matsuura et al, to be an antifungal agent that is active against C. albicans. Another compound contained in AGE, DADS, has also been shown in several studies to act as antifungal agent and inhibit the growth of C. albicans. The mechanism of action is complex; the organosulfur DADS kills the Candida yeast by decreasing respiration and suppressing the activity of protective enzymes and other molecules that are critical for the viability of Candida albicans.

    Inhibition of the Virulent, Invasive Form of Candida
    In order to transform from a single infectious cell to the virulent and invasive form, C. albicans must form filaments (hyphae), a process that is largely controlled by a gene called SIR2. A series of studies undertaken by Low et al, at the University of Putra, Malaysia, investigated the effect of a garlic extract on the transformation of C. albicans to its virulent invasive form. The investigators found that growing Candida cells in the presence of garlic extract prevented the transformation of the yeast to its hyphal, invasive form. They also found that by increasing concentration of the garlic extract there was a one and a half to two and a half fold decrease in the expression of the SIR2 gene that regulates the formation of the filaments. The investigators concluded that it is unlikely that C. albicans would develop a resistance to the garlic compounds; therefore, the anti-Candida effects of the garlic extract, in preventing transformation of Candida to its virulent pathogenic form may provide an important alternative route to treatment with antifungal medications.

    Summing Up
    Of all the kinds of infections caused by C. albicans, vaginitis is considered one of the most disturbing to women. Vaginal yeast infections occur when new yeast is introduced into the vaginal area, or when there is an increased quantity of yeast already present in the vagina, relative to the number of normally residing protective bacteria. Such imbalance occurs, for example, when beneficial, protective bacteria are destroyed by antibiotics that are taken to treat infections of the urinary and respiratory tracts, or some other types of infection. Other cases that increase risk of vaginitis are in the use of immune-suppressive drugs, as Candida cells can multiply, invade tissues, and cause irritation of the lining of the vagina.

    Women with suppressed immune systems, for example after taking cortisone-related medications such as prednisone, develop vaginal yeast infections more frequently than women with normal immunity. Additional conditions that may predispose women to developing vaginal yeast infections include oral contraceptives, pregnancy and the use of douches or perfumed vaginal hygiene sprays.

    Treatment with antifungal medications can be effective but Candida albicans develops resistance. One of the most promising treatments that rely on natural ingredients is garlic and the odor free Aged Garlic Extract (Kyolic AGE) that contain antifungal components. In addition, AGE has been shown to increase immunity, helping the body fight the Candida infections.

    Though clinical trial will prove the efficacy of garlic in eradicating Candida and curing vaginitis, experimental studies show that exposing Candida cells to a variety of garlic compounds present in AGE prevents Candida from developing into the virulent invasive form that can lead to systemic infections, strongly suggesting that AGE, the odorless form of garlic may be a powerful remedy against infections by Candida albicans.

    1. Low CF, Chong PP, Yong PV, Lim CS, Ahmad Z, Othman F. Inhibition of hyphae formation and SIR2 expression in Candida albicans treated with fresh Allium sativum (garlic) extract. Appl Microbiol. 2008;105:2169–77.
    2. Lanzotti V, Barile E, Antignani V, Bonanomi G, Scala F. Antifungal saponins from bulbs of garlic, Allium sativum. Phytochemistry. 2012; 78:126–34.
    3. Kyo E, Uda N, Kasuga S, Itakura Y. Immunomodulatory effects of aged garlic extract. J. Nutr2001;131:1075S-9S. Review.
    4. Matsuura H, .Ushuroguchi T. Itakura Y., Hayashi Y and Fuwa T. Chem Pharm Bull. 1988; 36: 3659–63.
    5. Yousuf S, Ahmad A, Khan A, Manzoor N, Khan LA. Effect of garlic-derived allyl sulphides on morphogenesis and hydrolytic enzyme secretion in Candida albicans. Med Mycol. 2011;49:444–8.