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anxiety

  • Stress is a funny word. Loaded with the emotional bias of being a “bad” thing, the word stress can be quite deceiving, making it harder to handle than it needs to be. So we will offer a new way to look at it—and very effective ways to address it.

    As the healing arts grows, it is important to remember that there are four key domains in healing:

    1. Biochemistry. This includes herbals, nutrition and medications.
    2. Structural. Including areas such as manipulation, surgery, breathing, exercise, and ergonomics.
    3. Biophysics. For example, Acupuncture, Chakra work, Yoga, and NAET.
    4. Mind-Body-Spirit. Understanding how the body is a metaphor for what is occurring at a deeper level. For most illnesses, including anxiety and even cancer, complete healing is unlikely to occur unless this is also attended to.

    You will find that healing occurs best when all four of these areas are addressed. No individual healer is likely to have complete expertise in all of these areas. As our new healthcare system evolves, and the current one heads to extinction, it is good to see health practitioners from diverse backgrounds communicating and working together more.

    So let's look at how a Comprehensive Medicine approach works when addressing anxiety and stress. I will focus predominantly on mind-body and biochemical aspects, as these are where my expertise is.

    Treating Mind-Body Issues
    Stress is not inherently good or bad. In fact, stress can be used to force flowers to bloom, and this analogy applies to people as well. The problem is when stress becomes chronic, and is no longer enjoyable. This then contributes to chronic elevation of the stress hormone cortisol, directly triggering anxiety. As the excessive stress becomes chronic, cortisol levels then go too low—ironically also triggering anxiety by causing recurrent bouts of low blood sugar.

    A simple way to tell if stress is healthy? Simply check in to see how it feels. If it feels good, it is healthy. What is enjoyable can vary markedly from person to person. For example I enjoyed the stress of skydiving, while for my wife it would feel awful.

    A Novel Treatment
    The key stress antidote? Check in to see how things feel. This is so important, that I am being purposely redundant. Learn to say NO to things that feel bad. Leave your brain out of it. Our brain is the product of our societal and family training. It simply feeds back to us what we were taught that we should do to make others happy. Our feelings, on the other hand, tap into our own personal authenticity. So choose to focus on, and do, those things that feel good. Once you've determined what feels good, then your mind can figure out how to make it happen.

    And yes, it is OK to simply choose to focus on what feels good in life, without being in constant battle mode against things you don't like. Like food choices at a buffet, we don't have to protest for the removal of those foods we don't choose to eat. Simply ignore them and pick those things you like. You will find that the rest will soon stop appearing in your life. This is part of how I suspect “free will” works. Our focus is like the remote control on our TV. What we focus on keeps showing up on our screen. This is why our constant “Wars on…” just seem to create more of what we are attacking.

    Is it truly OK to do what feels good? Some will make the argument that “Heroin feels good, and perhaps also smacking that person who makes me angry over the head with a two-byfour.” This is why we add two caveats:

    1. Don't hurt others.
    2. Ask yourself “How is that working out for me?”

    Doing this, people will find their anxiety is often coming from their choosing what they think they should do over what feels good (i.e. doing what others want, instead of what is authentic to them). Notice if you are constantly feeling, “I should do this, or I should do that.” This is euphemistically called “Shoulding on yourself.” I invite you to change that toxic behavior.

    If hyperventilation is present, one will usually have buried feelings that are bubbling to the surface during periods of relative calm. Counseling to help them learn to feel their feelings helps over time. Also, as panic attacks often leave people feeling like they are going to die, understanding that the symptoms are not dangerous helps. Simply being told this may not be enough to reassure you though. You can confirm hyperventilation is the cause by breathing rapidly for up to 30–60 seconds and seeing how it amplifies your symptoms. Unfortunately, this can also precipitate a full-blown panic attack, so be forewarned, and pick a safe time and place to do this test!

    My e-book, “Three Steps to Happiness—Healing through Joy,” can help guide you through the mind-body healing process.

    Balance The Biochemistry
    Begin with ruling out and treating overt issues, including:

    1. Overactive thyroid. Consider this if your Free T4 thyroid test is even in the upper 20th percentile of the normal range.
    2. Low progesterone (women). Progesterone is like our body's natural Valium. Consider this if anxiety is worse around menses and ovulation.
    3. Low testosterone (men). Consider if testosterone levels are in the lower quarter of the normal range.
    4. Adrenal fatigue—caused by drops in blood sugar. A key tip-off? Irritability and anxiety that triggers sugar cravings and improves after eating.

    Also optimize nutrient status, especially magnesium and B vitamins. Instead of blood testing, which is of questionable value here, I simply recommend (for most people—whether or not they have anxiety) a high potency multi powder called the Energy Revitalization System (by Enzymatic Therapy). With this, one drink replaces well over 35 pills, optimizing levels of most nutrients. Also have the person decrease sugar and caffeine intake to see if this helps.

    Herbals can also be very helpful. For example, there is a unique extract, which can be as effective as Xanax, but is very safe. This special extract stimulates one of the most abundant neuroreceptors in the body, the cannabinoid receptors. Many of you may recognize this as the marijuana receptor, and in fact many people use cannabis to self-medicate for their anxiety. But what if you could get the benefits without the sedation and side effects?

    The good news is that now you can. Recent research showed that a special extract of the roots of the narrow leafed coneflower (Echinacea angustifoliae) was more effective than the tranquilizer Librium, with none of the side effects. It also worked quickly, with effects building with continued use. This is not the same component used for immune enhancement, and isn't found at needed levels in standard Echinacea. It is available though as AnxioCalm (by EuroPharma—20 mg per tablet).

    Let's look at a few studies of this unique extract.
    A study published in the March 2012 issue of Phytotherapy Research included 33 volunteers. All experienced anxiety, assessed using the validated State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). The extract decreased STAI scores within three days, an effect that remained stable for the duration of the treatment (seven days) and for the two weeks that followed treatment. There were no dropouts and no side effects.

    Another study looked at higher dosages (40 mg 2 x day) in a multi-center, placebo-controlled, double-blind Phase II study involving 26 volunteers diagnosed with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). Over a three week period, the number of severely anxious patients (HADS-A scores larger than 11) decreased from 11 to zero!

    So I begin with two tablets of AnxioCalm 2x day for severe anxiety. After three weeks, the dose can often be dropped to one 20 mg tablet twice a day. It can also simply be used as needed, and serves as an excellent sleep aid.

    Other helpful herbals include valerian, passion flower, hops, theanine, and lemon balm. These can be found in a combination called the “Revitalizing Sleep Formula,” which helps anxiety during the day and sleep at night. I personally use both AnxioCalm and the Revitalizing Sleep Formula at night to ensure 8–9 hours of deep sleep.

    The smell of lavender oil is also calming, and a small drop on the upper lip, or even having a lavender bouquet in one's room, can be helpful.

    Structural And Biophysics
    Simply going for regular walks in the sunshine, and doing yoga, tai chi, and meditation can be very helpful. A technique called centering can help people feel that they are in the calm “eye of the cyclone” when panic attacks hit. In addition, it is helpful to explore a technique called Butyko breathing, which can be very helpful for anxiety and hyperventilation.

    For PTSD or old emotional traumas, a technique called EFT (Emotional Freedom Technique) can give near miraculous benefits in as little as 20 minutes (see EFT.Mercola.com). It may seem odd, but try it and you'll be amazed. Releasing old traumas through a simple “trembling” technique is also helpful, and the person can do it on their own. It is easy and simple instructions can be found in the book Waking the Tiger.

    By having the entire healing arts toolkit available, and not just using the “medical hammer,” anxiety can now be effectively treated!
  • Currently, the most talked about natural ingredient in the dietary supplement industry is probably CBD. It’s also the ingredient about which the most misinformation is being disseminated. One YouTube video may say it’s the cure for all ills, while another website may say that it’s not safe, and might even make you high. It really is a travesty that there is so much hype and unreliable personal opinion being expressed about CBD. In an effort to provide some clarity, this article will share science-based information about hemp, CBD and phytocannabinoids.

    Defining CBD
    Cannabidiol, or CBD, is a naturally-occurring compound found in plants. It belongs to a family of compounds called cannabinoids or, more specifically, phytocannabinoids — which means cannabinoids from plants (phyto = plant). Actually, there are over 100 different phytocannabinoids, and hemp provides a primary source. Other common plants, such as oregano and basil, also contain phytocannabinoids. It may be that, when you eat Italian foods, one of the reasons you may enjoy them so much (besides the delicious taste), is that the phytocannabinoids they contain help you feel good.

    The most well-known of the phytocannabinoids, aside from CBD, is tetrahydrocannabinol, or THC. THC is the psychoactive compound found in marijuana that makes you high. To be clear, CBD and the other phytocannabinoids are not psychoactive, and will not make you high. They have other benefits, but they are not psychoactive.

    Full-Spectrum Phytocannabinoids
    While CBD is the most prevalent phytocannabinoid in hemp, it isn’t the only one. In fact, cannabinoids work together to create a greater overall synergistic activity. In scientific literature, the name for this is “the entourage effect.” This is similar to the way that various vitamins and minerals work together synergistically. If you’re just using isolated CBD, you’re not getting the benefits of the entourage effect.

    A full-spectrum hemp extract, on the other hand, provides a full array of naturally-occurring phytocannabinoids, including a defined amount of CBD. That’s what you want: full-spectrum phytocannabinoids, not CBD isolate. It should also be noted that CBD isolate is less expensive than full-spectrum, as well as less effective.

    The Endocannabinoid System
    While most people can probably name a couple of body systems, like the immune and cardiovascular systems which consist of defined organs and other structures, the vast majority of people are unaware of the endocannabinoid system (ECS). The ECS is a different type of system, composed of a series of receptors which occur throughout the nervous system and, consequently, throughout every system in the body. The ECS plays a major role in regulating many physical and cognitive processes in the body.

    In addition, the body produces endocannabinoids, which are its own internal cannabinoids. These activate the ECS receptors to initiate a cascade of powerful and important effects. Likewise, phytocannabinoids work with endocannabinoids to support and provide healthy functioning of the ECS. Just as every other system in the body needs nutritional support to stay healthy, the ECS needs such support as well. Supplementation with phytocannabinoids can help in the nourishment of the ECS.

    Research On CBD/Phytocannabinoids
    Regarding the benefits of cannabinoids let me start by saying that most CBD research is actually done on full-spectrum phytocannabinoids with a defined amount of CBD, not CBD isolate. So, that’s what I’m going to talk about. CBD/ phytocannabinoid research had been done on a broad range of health issues, with significant variations in dosage. In this article, we’ll focus on a few primary benefits associated with specific amounts of phytocannabinoids.

    Relaxation And Sleep
    Americans have a serious need to relax. Almost one-third of adults report that stress has a strong impact on their physical and mental health — and 42 percent of those report feeling nervous or anxious. In addition, about 46 percent of adults surveyed have reported lying awake at night due to stress. Essentially, stress just keeps their mind going and going, making it difficult to shut down for the night. Since the ECS plays an important role in the regulation and maintenance of all body systems, and phytocannabinoids support the ECS, it’s not surprising to learn that in human clinical research, 25 mg of phytocannabinoids daily have been shown to help calm stress and stress-induced anxiety, as well as help improve sleep.

    A large, retrospective series of case studies1 was conducted in which the vast majority of 103 adult subjects with stress/anxiety and sleep complaints were given 25 mg phytocannabinoids per day in capsule form. If stress/anxiety complaints predominated the 25 mg dose was given in the morning after breakfast. If sleep complaints predominated, the dose was given in the evening after dinner. The results were that, on average, stress/anxiety and sleep improved for the majority of patients and these improvements were sustained over time. At the first monthly assessment following the start of phytocannabinoid supplementation, 79.2 percent and 66.7 percent of subjects experienced an improvement in stress/anxiety and sleep, respectively.

    Other published case studies found similar results when phytocannabinoids were supplemented. In a case study2 with a young girl with stress/anxiety, 25 mg of phytocannabinoids at bedtime resulted in a steady improvement in the quality and quantity of her sleep. Likewise, in a case study3 with a 27-year old man who had stress/anxiety and sleep issues, the subject reported that 24 mg of phytocannabinoids daily resulted in improvements in stress/anxiety as well as settling into a regular pattern of sleep.

    There are other studies in a variety of populations4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11 in which phytocannabinoids have been successfully used at higher doses for stress/anxiety and sleep, but no studies in which phytocannabinoids have been used in lower doses.

    Pain/Inflammation
    An emerging area of phytocannabinoid research is inflammation and pain. Now before exploring the data, keep in mind that inflammation commonly occurs in a non-disease state. Inflammation occurs in everyone, every day. Higher intakes of red and processed meats, sweets, desserts, French fries, and refined grains are associated with experiencing more inflammation.12 Colder temperatures are associated with experiencing more inflammation.13 Physical overexertion — like exercising extra hard at the gym — may result in temporary inflammation and pain.14,15 So, when talking about pain and inflammation, these are the type of applications we're considering. Now, onto a review of phytocannabinoid research on inflammation and pain.

    In research, there are various markers of inflammation. That is, there are inflammatory chemicals produced by our cells which contribute to the inflammatory process, and which can be measured. In one laboratory study,16 researchers sought to quantify the anti-inflammatory effects of cannabinoids, including phytocannabinoids, in cells that produced inflammatory markers. The results were that the cannabinoids successfully reduced inflammatory markers. Similar results were seen in other laboratory research with cannabinoids/phytocannabinoids and inflammation.17,18,19 Other laboratory research suggests that phytocannabinoids may also have application for pain.20,21

    In addition to laboratory research, there is also human research in which various doses of phytocannabinoids have been used in different inflammation/pain situations. In double-blind, placebo-controlled research with 62 subjects, supplementation with 200 mg/day phytocannabinoids significantly reduced levels of resistin, a type of protein that promotes several proinflammatory cytokines.22 In other human research,23 50-100 mg/day of phytocannabinoids resulted in pain reduction in most subjects tested.

    Furthermore, 2,409 phytocannabinoid users were recently surveyed regarding why they used phytocannabinoids. The results, published in a scientific journal,24 were that almost 62 percent of the phytocannabinoid used reported using phytocannabinoids for specific health applications. The top three were pain, anxiety, and mood. Almost 36 percent of respondents reported that phytocannabinoids effectively addressed their issue(s) "very well by itself," while only 4.3 percent reported "not very well." Of course, this survey in and of itself does not constitute direct evidence of the effectiveness of phytocannabinoids of temporary pain applications, but when taken together with the other research cited it certainly provides interesting insights into the popular use of phytocannabinoids.

    Conclusion
    Much of the aforementioned research was conducted using a daily dose of 25 mg of phytocannabinoids. Nevertheless, you may find products on the market that contain 10 mg or even 5 mg of CBD/phytocannabinoids. Many people have asked me if these lower doses will do them any good. My answer is maybe, but since there's no research showing that doses lower than 25 mg have efficacy, I would recommend sticking with 25 mg dose for a greater likelihood of success.

    References

    1. Shannon S, Lewis N, Lee H, Hughes S. Cannabidiol (CBD) in Anxiety and Sleep: A large case series. Unpublished. n.d. 10 pgs.
    2. Shannon S, Opila-Lehman J. Effectiveness of Cannabidiol Oil for Pediatric Anxiety and Insomnia as Part of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Case Report. Perm J. 2016 Fall;20(4):108-11.
    3. Shannon S, Opila-Lehman J. Cannabidiol Oil for Decreasing Addictive Use of Marijuana: A Case Report. Integrative Medicine. 2015;14(6):31-5.
    4. Fusar-Poli P, Allen P, Bhattacharyya S, Crippa JA, Mechelli A, Borgwardt S, Martin-Santos R, Seal ML, O'Carrol C, Atakan Z, Zuardi AW, McGuire P. Modulation of effective connectivity during emotional processing by Delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol. 2010 May;13(4):421-32.
    5. Crippa JA, Derenusson GN, Ferrari TB, Wichert-Ana L, Duran FL, Martin-Santos R, Simoes MV, Bhattacharyya S, Fusar-Poli P, Atakan Z, Santos Filho A, Freitas-Ferrari MC, McGuire PK, Zuardi AW, Busatto GF, Hallak JE. Neural basis of anxiolytic effects of cannabidiol (CBD) in generalized social anxiety disorder: a preliminary report. J Psychopharmacol. 2011 Jan;25(1):121-30.
    6. Bergamaschi MM, Queiroz RH, Chagas MH, de Oliveira DC, De Martinis BS, Kapczinski F, Quevedo J, Roesler R, Schroder N, Nardi AE, Martin-Santos R, Hallak JE, Zuardi AW, Crippa JA. Cannabidiol reduces the anxiety induced by simulated public speaking in treatment-naive social phobia patients. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2011 May;36(6):1219-26.
    7. Das RK, Kamboj SK, Ramadas M, Yogan K, Gupta V, Redman E, Curran HV, Morgan CJ. Cannabidiol enhances consolidation of explicit fear extinction in humans. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2013 Apr;226(4):781-92.
    8. Carlini EA, Cunha JM. Hypnotic and antiepileptic effects of cannabidiol. J Clin Pharmacol. 1981 Aug-Sep;21(S1):417S-27S.
    9. Zuardi AW, Crippa JA, Hallak JE et al. Cannabidiol for the treatment of psychosis in Parkinson's disease. J Psychopharmacol, 2009;23(8):979.83.
    10. Chagas MH, Eckeli AL, Zuardi AW, Pena-Pereira MA, Sobreira-Neto MA, Sobreira ET, Camilo MR, Bergamaschi MM, Schenck CH, Hallak JE, Tumas V, Crippa JA. Cannabidiol can improve complex sleep-related behaviours associated with rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder in Parkinson's disease patients: a case series. J Clin Pharm Ther. 2014 Oct;39(5):564.6.
    11. Pesantez-Rios G, Armijos-Acurio L, Jimbo-Sotomayor R, Pascual-Pascual SI, Pesantez-Cuesta G. [Cannabidiol: its use in refractory epilepsies]. Rev Neurol. 2017 Aug 16;65(4):157.60. [Article in Spanish]
    12. Lopez-Garcia E, Schulze MB, Fung TT, Meigs JB, Rifai N, Manson JE, Hu FB. Major dietary patterns are related to plasma concentrations of markers of inflammation and endothelial dysfunction. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004 Oct;80(4):1029.35.
    13. Halonen JI, Zanobetti A, Sparrow D, Vokonas PS, Schwartz J. Associations between outdoor temperature and markers of inflammation: a cohort study. Environ Health.2010 Jul 23;9:42.
    14. Suzuki K, Peake J, Nosaka K, et al. Changes in markers of muscle damage, inflammation and HSP70 after an Ironman Triathlon race. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2006 Dec;98(6):525.34.
    15. Rowlands DS, Pearce E, Aboud A, et al. Oxidative stress, inflammation, and muscle soreness in an 894-km relay trail run. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2012 May;112(5):1839.48.
    16. Couch DG, Tasker C, Theophilidou E, Lund JN, O'Sullivan SE. Cannabidiol and palmitoylethanolamide are anti-inflammatory in the acutely inflamed human colon. Clin Sci(Lond). 2017 Oct 25;131(21):2611.26.
    17. Koay LC, Rigby RJ, Wright KL. Cannabinoid-induced autophagy regulates suppressor of cytokine signaling-3 in intestinal epithelium. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2014 Jul 15;307(2):G140.8.
    18. Kozela E, Juknat A, Kaushansky N, Rimmerman N, Ben-Nun A, Vogel Z. Cannabinoids decrease the th17 inflammatory autoimmune phenotype. J Neuroimmune Pharmacol. 2013 Dec;8(5):1265.76.
    19. De Filippis D, Esposito G, Cirillo C, Cipriano M, De Winter BY, Scuderi C, Sarnelli G, Cuomo R, Steardo L, De Man JG, Iuvone T. Cannabidiol reduces intestinal inflammation through the control of neuroimmune axis. PLoS One. 2011;6(12):e28159.
    20. Booz GW. Cannabidiol as an emergent therapeutic strategy for lessening the impact of inflammation on oxidative stress. Free Radic Biol Med. 2011 Sep 1;51(5):1054.61.
    21. Xiong W, Cui T, Cheng K, Yang F, Chen SR, Willenbring D, Guan Y, Pan HL, Ren K, Xu Y, Zhang L. Cannabinoids suppress inflammatory and neuropathic pain by targeting α3 glycine receptors. J Exp Med. 2012 Jun 4;209(6):1121.34.
    22. Jadoon KA, Ratcliffe SH, Barrett DA, Thomas EL, Stott C, Bell JD, O'Sullivan SE, Tan GD. Efficacy and Safety of Cannabidiol and Tetrahydrocannabivarin on Glycemic and Lipid Parameters in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Parallel Group Pilot Study. Diabetes Care. 2016 Oct;39(10):1777.86.
    23. Cunetti L, Manzo L, Peyraube R, Arnaiz J, Curi L, Orihuela S. Chronic Pain Treatment With Cannabidiol in Kidney Transplant Patients in Uruguay. Transplant Proc. 2018 Mar;50(2):461.4.
    24. Corroon J, Phillips JA. A Cross-Sectional Study of Cannabidiol Users. Cannabis Cannabinoid Res. 2018 Jul 1;3(1):152.61.
  • Stress plays havoc with your system
    Let's face it, everyone is stressed these days. According to Kenneth Pelletier PhD, author of Mind as Healer, Mind as Slayer and scientific board member of the American Institute of Stress, between 80-90 percent of all illnesses are linked to stress and 75-90 percent of all visits to the doctor are for stress and anxiety-related concerns.

    When we constantly stress over things—the majority of which are nothing more than figments of our imaginations, we end up elevating our stress hormones—especially cortisol. Perception equals reality in the face of stress. During stress, cortisol can easily become more important to your body than other hormones, and since it is produced along the same biochemical pathway as your sex hormones, it usually ends up robbing the body of the very substances needed to keep these hormones in abundance.

    For instance, cortisol can compete with testosterone (one of the reasons our libidos are almost nonexistent during times of stress), and testosterone is needed for the repair and replacement of muscle tissue. In case you are wondering why this is so important, your muscle tissue controls, to a large extent, the rate of your overall metabolism (one of the reasons your metabolism declines through age is because of a loss of lean body mass—muscle). In other words, the more muscle you carry, the greater your ability to burn body fat.

    Why stress ages you
    Cortisol also competes with dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), your anti-aging hormone, which is why people seem to magically age before your eyes when they are under stress for long periods. DHEA is also needed to maintain a healthy metabolism.

    In fact, research at the University of Wisconsin, Madison has shown that derivatives of DHEA help induce thermogenesis (the burning of bodyfat), and thereby may be able to decrease the incidence of obesity. Since one of the most important rolls DHEA holds in the body is in balancing the effects of cortisol, perhaps this is one of the keys to its metabolism enhancing effects.

    The good news is that DHEA levels can be naturally enhanced by altering your moods. Research presented in the journal, Psychoneuroendocrinology showed that total mood disturbance and perceived stress over time negatively affected the cortisol to DHEA ratio (cortisol went up and DHEA came crashing down). When the test subjects lowered their stress levels through an intervention called Cognitive-behavioral stress management, their DHEA (measured as DHEA-S) levels rose in concert with changes in their moods.

    In another study performed at the Institute of HeartMath, Boulder Creek, California, thirty test subjects using techniques designed to eliminate negative thought patterns and promote a positive emotional state, showed a 23 percent reduction in cortisol and a 100 percent increase in DHEA/DHEA-S levels.

    Since healthy DHEA/cortisol ratios are so important to a healthy metabolism, it makes good sense to practise stress reduction as much as possible. Aside from this, maintain a positive attitude and lose the belly fat. Research presented in the journal Diabetes indicates that abdominal fat can contributing substantially to the regeneration of cortisol.

    Other ways to reduce cortisol and raise DHEA are: exercise regularly, maintain a regular sleep schedule, don't skip meals—unbalanced blood sugar raises cortisol. And try supplementing with high-alpha whey protein. According to a study in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, high alpha-lactalbumin whey helps stress-vulnerable subjects by increasing brain tryptophan and serotonin levels.

    References:
    1. Pelletier, Kenneth. Mind as Healer, Mind as Slayer. Stanford University Press, 2002.
    2. Jedrzejuk D, et al. Dehydroepiandrosterone replacement in healthy men with age-related decline of DHEA-S: effects on fat distribution, insulin sensitivity and lipid metabolism. Aging Male. 2003 Sep;6(3):151-6.
    3. Hansen PA, et al. DHEA protects against visceral obesity and muscle insulin resistance in rats fed a high-fat diet. Am J Physiol. 1997 Nov;273(5 Pt 2):R1704-8.
    4. Lardy, H, Partridge, B, Kneer N, and Wei, Y. Ergosteroids: Induction of thermogenic enzymes in liver of rats treated with steroids derived from dehydroepiandrosterone. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 1995; 92: 6617-6619.
    5. Morgan CA, et al. Relationships among plasma dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate and cortisol levels, symptoms of dissociation, and objective performance in humans exposed to acute stress. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2004 Aug;61(8):819-25.
    6. Cruess DG, et al. Cognitive-behavioral stress management buffers decreases in dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) and increases in the cortisol/DHEA-S ratio and reduces mood disturbance and perceived stress among HIV-seropositive men. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 1999 Jul;24(5):537-49.
    7. Marcus CR, et al. Whey protein rich in alpha-lactalbumin increases the ratio of plasma tryptophan to the sum of the other large neutral amino acids and improves cognitive performance in stress-vulnerable subjects. Am J Clin Nutr. 2002 Jun;75(6):1051-6.
  • Menopause is the term used to describe the progressive cessation of menstruation in a woman over time. Menopause typically occurs after a woman’s child-bearing years, between the ages of 45 and 50. Some women, however, experience it as early as 35 and as late as 60 years old. The process of menopause can last for two to six years, during which time a woman’s hormone levels change due to the reduction in the production of estrogen and progesterone in the ovaries as they cease to produce eggs. Physiologically, menopause marks the end of a woman’s childbearing capacity and is a part of her natural aging process.

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