The Evolution of Nutrition Introduction
Nutrition has come a long way, over many years, to the point
where it is finally starting to get the attention it deserves in
terms of its ability to determine if a person can achieve good
health and avoid chronic disease and premature death. Around
400 BC, the Greek scientist Hippocrates gave food a lofty goal
when he proclaimed, “Let food be thy medicine and medicine
be thy food.”1 It has taken over 2400 years for that famous
quote to be taken seriously, and the journey, especially over the
past hundred plus years, is worthy of examination. If we can
appreciate how we arrived at our current understanding about
the importance of food, perhaps we can better understand how
we can best continue this journey of exploration, education and
Early Farming Influences
About 10,000 years ago farming began to take the place of
hunting and gathering as the primary source of food for many
people.2 Planting crops allowed farmers to begin to make
changes in the variety of plants grown, as well as to experiment
with interbreeding to create more productive hybrids. Almost
immediately, farmers began to create hybrids that were sweeter
in order to accommodate human taste preferences, with the
negative consequence of food becoming less nutrient dense.3
Monocultivation (one crop per area) also contributed to the
gradual reduction in nutrient levels in the soil. While crop
rotation and better fertilization were eventually introduced, the
concept of growing as much as possible, at the lowest possible
cost, was firmly established. With the introduction of chemicals,
like pesticides and synthetic fertilizers, this concentration
on productivity and profitability took on a heightened level of
The introduction of corporate farming pushed this
manipulation of plant genetics and economical farming practices
to extreme levels with serious consequences for the nutritional
value of our food. To illustrate how serious this problem is,
consider these three examples of wild plants compared to their
commercially grown counterparts:
- Dandelions have 700 percent more phytonutrients than spinach.4
- Wild purple potatoes from Peru have 2800 percent more cancer fighting anthocyanins than farm grown russet potatoes.5
- One species of wild apples has 10,000 percent more phytonutrients than the orchard grown Golden Delicious Apple.6
The United States Department of Agriculture has studied the deterioration of plant nutrition over the past 25 to 40 years and identified the following declines in key nutrients in the foods we eat:
- Some nutrient deficiencies due to nutritionally depleted soil:7
- Calcium in broccoli is down 50 percent (1975 to 2001)
- Iron in watercress is down 88 percent (1975 to 2001)
- Vitamin C in cauliflower is down 40 percent (1979 to 2001)
- Vitamin C in sweet peppers is down 30 percent (1963 to 2001)
- Vitamin A in apples is down 41 percent (1963 to 2001)
- Magnesium in collard greens is down 81 percent (1963 to 2001)
- Potassium in collard greens is down 57 percent (1963 to 2001)
Early picking also causes the loss of nutrients.8
In addition to depleted nutrients in our soil, there is also
significant nutrient loss due to early picking, and here are just
a few examples:
- Cherries can lose half of their vitamin C if picked too early.
- Blackberries can lose up to 75 percent of their cancer fighting anthocyanins if they are picked too early.
- Tomatoes have twice the vitamin C and beta-carotene when they ripen on the vine, compared to being picked green.
Other nutrient depletion factors:
There have been many other changes in farming over the past
100 plus years, and most of them have resulted in a loss of
nutrients. These include synthetic fertilizers, pesticides, genetic
modification, storage of foods for later use, shipping foods long
distances and not replacing all of the nutrients depleted with
each crop. The quantity of food available at lower prices has
been one positive factor leading to more availability of food for
people with limited financial resources. However, considering
the overall depletion of nutritional value, this increased quantity
is probably not very beneficial in the long term.9
Societal Influences On Our Food and Its Nutritional Value
During the past century, while science was making steady
progress in the understanding of what nutrients are in our foods,
and how they impact our health, we have been transforming
our daily eating behavior based on many influencing factors.
For example, a recent study by the University of Colorado found
that the nutrient density of our food has declined considerably
over the past 100 years. Food today has over 50 percent fewer
nutrients compared to the foods eaten by our grandparents. Not
only is food less nutrient dense, we are also eating less of the really healthy foods. Our grandparents consumed an average of 131 pounds of homegrown vegetables every year, compared to
11 pounds today.10
Another surprising comparison is the amount of sugar
consumed today, compared to 100 years ago. Our grandparents
consumed about 63 pounds of sugar every year, while we now
consume over 150 pounds per year. It should be no surprise that
we are suffering an epidemic of obesity and chronic disease.
We are eating way too much sugar and considerably fewer fresh
There are many other factors that have influenced our eating
behavior and nutritional intake over the years. Here is a
summary of many of these influencing factors:
1. Urbanization—In the late 1800s and early 1900s, cities
grew rapidly and suburbs followed after WWII, as the baby
boomer generation looked for inexpensive housing and
safe neighborhoods to raise their families. Both expansions
consumed valuable farmland, which was a crucial factor in the
reduction of locally grown produce. Farms became bigger and
more mechanized, as farmers attempted to produce more food
to meet the needs of a rapidly growing population.12
2. Wars—Several wars occurred during the 20th century
and each one had a unique influence on our food and our
nutritional intake. Rationing was a common feature of the wars
in the first half of the century. Victory gardens actually helped
people to produce their own homegrown foods, and canning of
vegetables and fruits was commonplace. Wars in the latter half
of the century seemed to have less influence as agribusiness
was in full production.13
3. Synthetic Fertilizers—Synthetic fertilizers, mostly nitrogen,
provide plants with a quick and abundant source of food.
However, this synthetic fertilizer source is petrochemical based,
thus creating major problems, such as killing earthworms and
beneficial organisms, sterilizing the soil, erosion, pollution of
the water supply, algae blooms, killing of sea life and cancer in
humans. It also goes into the atmosphere leading to greenhouse
gases, acid rain and respiratory problems in humans.14
4. Pesticides—Pesticides help to control crop damage done
by insects and other plant diseases, however they are also
chemical products with a wide range of problems. When
consumed by humans or animals, these toxins cause damage
to internal organs, such as the liver, where toxins are supposed
to be neutralized.
Pesticides can cause cancer and some produce absorbs
more than others. A list of the worst fruits and vegetables, in
terms of pesticide toxicity, can be found on the internet at www.
5. The Depression—The economic depression of the 1930s
created economic hardship for millions of people leading to the
consumption of a less healthy diet.
The depression meant hunger, malnutrition and poor
health. Many people ate weeds or food from garbage dumps.
Farmers’ prices dropped by 50 percent and the federal
government bought much of this food to give to the poorest
6. Refrigeration—Refrigerators and freezers allowed people to
buy more food at one time and encouraged food companies to
make frozen products. This had positive and negative impacts.
On the plus side, frozen fruits and vegetables often are higher
in nutritional value because they are frozen soon after being
picked. On the negative side, food can sit in the refrigerator too
long and lose much of its nutritional value.17
7. Food Processing—Food companies used processing to extend
shelf life in order to increase profits. This leads to omega-3
oils being taken out of foods because they oxidize. Grains are
ground and bleached, which can remove up to 80 percent of
some nutrients. Canning requires foods to be heated to destroy
germs and bacteria, but it also causes the loss of nutrients.18
8. Agribusiness—Mega farms owned by large corporations have
produced larger quantities of inexpensive foods. This helps
families with lower incomes.
However, the profit motive leads to the higher use of
synthetic fertilizers, pesticides, early picking before crop maturity,
storage for long periods of time, long shipping distances, over
processing and the overall reduction of nutrients.19
9. Preservatives—Agribusiness and food processing also led
to the development of synthetic food preservatives. These
chemicals extend shelf life, but also often deplete nutrient
content and introduce toxins that the human body does not like.
Many of these preservatives have been shown to cause
cancer and other health problems.20
10. Pollution—Toxin levels have increased steadily over the last
100 years from automobiles, industry, farming, human and
animal feces, production waste and electromagnetic influences,
such as computers and cell phones. All of these toxins can find
there way into our water, air and food supplies. This creates a
problem for our bodies, which need to extract these toxins and
process them through our kidneys, liver, lungs and skin. These
toxins are one of the main reasons for the increase in cancer
and heart disease over the past 70 years, and are one of the
main reasons why everyone should eat as much organic food
as they can.21
11. Artificial Coloring and Flavoring—In the 1950s and 60s, food
companies began to increase the use of artificial coloring and
flavoring. Making food more appealing visually, and in terms of
taste, was important in an increasingly competitive marketplace.
However, many of these ingredients come from chemicals that
are toxic and potentially dangerous to our health. Government
regulation of these additives has been virtually non-existent and
many of these ingredients have now been directly connected to
12. Added Fat, Sugar and Salt—There are many articles, books
and even movie documentaries exposing the food industry’s
obsession to get us to eat more of their unhealthy foods. Adding
fat, sugar and salt became one of the best ways to accomplish
this in the 1970s and 80s. This practice continues to this day,
but it is beginning to be challenged by various studies and
reports, which have pointed out the illnesses caused by these
three very tasty ingredients.23
13. Women at Work—World War II saw a substantial increase of
women in the workplace where they made all of the materials
for war. They continued to work throughout the second half of
the 20th century, which dramatically changed the way many
- Processed food made shopping and meal preparation easier.
- Microwave ovens greatly reduced cooking time.
- Fast food outlets made cooking unnecessary.
While these so-called “improvements” saved time and money,
they also caused our foods to be less nutritious, leading to a
major increase in chronic disease over the past 50 to 60 years.24
14. Commercials—Food knowledge and cooking skills were
lost by many families in the last half of the 20th century, and
commercials about what foods to buy increased at the same
time. Children would demand the foods advertised during
their TV programs and exhausted mothers would relent just to
avoid an argument.25 The result is a health crisis of the greatest
magnitude in the form of soaring rates of childhood obesity
and diabetes. For children born after the year 2000, the risk of
diabetes, according to a report in The New England Journal of
Medicine, will be:26
(This is an increase of over 400 percent compared to current rates)
- Caucasian 35 percent
- African American 43 percent
- Hispanic 49 percent
15. Government Influence—Our governments have tried to
address the emerging nutrition crisis in our country, but their
efforts have fallen woefully short of what was needed. Here are
- School lunch program—This was a good idea, but ended up being too much of a dumping ground for meat, dairy, sugar and grain products, which have actually made our children less healthy.27
- Irradiation and Genetic Manipulation—These programs were intended to increase the supply of food, as well as reduce cost. They did both, but in the process, also made our food less healthy, leading to serious health consequences. (Foods treated in this way are not well absorbed.)28
- Fortification Programs—The government began to recognize how many nutrients were being lost in processing, shipping long distances, picking too early and adding dangerous chemicals. The fortification of food was mandated in some cases and done voluntarily by food companies in other cases. This is probably one of the better things done by government and businesses. As usual, it is probably too little, too late, and not being done as well as it could be. The RDA (Recommended Daily Allowances) are too low to be really effective in the prevention of most chronic diseases.29
Some Significant Scientific Breakthroughs
The following scientific breakthroughs are merely a sampling
of the many events that have shaped nutritional history over
the past 100 plus years. They are presented here to illustrate
how each discovery helped to pave the way for others, which
allows us to enjoy a much greater understanding about how
food impacts our health and our longevity.
Around 1900—Dr. W. O. Atwater and his colleagues
identified the energy yield from carbohydrates, protein and
fats (4,4 and 9 Kcal per gram), which is still used today.30
1906—Frederick Hopkins identified “accessory food factors”
essential to health. He shared a Nobel Prize for this discovery of
what would later (1912) be named vitamins by Casimir Frank.31
1913—Elmer McCollum discovered the first specific vitamins,
fat-soluble vitamin A and water-soluble vitamin E.32
1914—1920—Dr. Joseph Goldberger identified niacin as the
nutritional deficiency responsible for pellagra, instead of an
infection, which was thought to be the cause.33
1920—Alfred Harper suggests that disease might be caused
by nutritional deficiencies, as well as outside invaders.34
1927—Adolf Otto Reinhold Windaus synthesized vitamin D
for which he won a Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1928.35
1929—Dr. Christian Eijkman identified thiamine deficiency as
the cause of beriberi, for which he won a Nobel Prize.36
1943—First attempt to establish national standards for
nutrition in order to prevent nutritional deficiencies in the
armed forces. This was undertaken by the Food Nutrition Board
of the National Academy of Science. The Recommended Daily
Allowances for energy, protein and eight essential vitamins and
minerals was established.37
1948—Framingham Heart Study begins with just over 5,000
people submitting information about their eating and lifestyle
habits. The study was designed to help identify the possible
connection between diet/lifestyle and chronic disease, especially
heart disease. The study continues today with over 120,000
participants and has produced over 1,000 medical studies.
Several significant findings have led to changes in nutritional
guidelines, as well as medica treatments.38
1948—Oxford University closes its nutrition department after
announcing that the subject seems to have been completely
studied between 1912–1944, with nothing more to be learned.
As it turned out, we only knew about 1 percent of what we now
know about nutrition, and this prestigious university could not have been more wrong.
1949—Drs. Wilfred and Evan Shute begin to use vitamin E to
treat burns and diabetic gangrene. Eventually, they also used
vitamin E to treat 30,000 patients, successfully, who had heart
1949—Linus Pauling co-publishes “Sickle Cell Anemia, A
Molecular Disease,” which was the first time a disease was
understood at the molecular level. He won the Nobel Prize in
Chemistry in 1954 for his work.40
1956—Roger Williams writes “Biochemical Individuality,”
which, for the first time, identifies major differences in nutritional
needs from one person to another. Some people may need 10
or 20 times more of a specific nutrient due to their genetic
uniqueness. In terms of today’s crisis of Type 2 diabetes, this is
extremely important. Williams found that some people only had
200,000 insulin producing beta cells, while others could have
over two million. That means some people are 10 times more
likely to become diabetic.41
1959—Abram Hoffer identifies niacin as a nutrient that
could lower LDL cholesterol. He also recommended niacin
for the treatment of schizophrenia. He was a leader in the
Orthomolecular Medicine movement.42
1968—Dr. Kilmer McCully begins his research into the
connection between low homocysteine levels and heart disease.
It took the medical establishment nearly 30 years to appreciate
his findings that nutrients folic acid, Vitamin B6, Vitamin B12
and betaine could be used to prevent and treat many people
with heart disease.43
1980—Saul Kent and William Faloon are co-founders of the Life
Extension Foundation, a membership organization dedicated to
the finding and publishing of research on the prevention and
treatment of the chronic disease of aging.44
1980s—Dean Ornish, M.D. conducts landmark study showing
that dietary and lifestyle changes can reduce arterial blockage
(plaque). This was accomplished with a near vegan diet with
only 10 percent comprised of fat.45
1990—James Balch, M.D. and Phyllis Balch write a book
entitled “Prescription for Nutritional Healing,” with nutritional
and herbal protocols for over 300 diseases. The book is a
national best seller with nearly 10 million copies being sold by
the year 2013.46
1992—The first USDA Food Pyramid is released based on
Recommended Daily Allowances. Subsequent research from
the Framingham Heart Study conducted by Walter Willett,
M.D., Ph.D. of Harvard University discredited The Pyramid,
which was found to be overly influenced by input, and financial
contributions, from the meat, dairy, sugar and wheat lobbies.47
1994—The Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act is
passed by Congress, which provides open access to nutritional
supplements to all residents of the U.S. without FDA restrictions
1994—The NIH is given funding to conduct research on the
efficacy of nutritional supplements, and other natural therapies,
for the prevention and treatment of chronic disease.49
1997—Life Extension Foundation releases the first edition of
its book entitled, “Disease Prevention and Treatment,” with
natural protocols for hundreds of chronic diseases backed by
thousands of scientific references.50
1997—The ACIR, a cancer research institute, releases a report
entitled “Food, Nutrition and the Prevention of Cancer.” The
findings from a review of 4,500 studies are that there would be
a decrease in cancer rates of 70 percent if people ate a plantbased
diet with a variety of fruits and vegetables, whole grains
and beans, in addition exercising more and stopping the use of
tobacco and alcohol.51
1999—Jeffrey Bland, Ph.D. writes “Genetic Nutritioneering,” a
book that explains how food speaks to our genes and can either
help to suppress negative genetic predispositions (healthy
foods), or both activate and even create new negative genetic
predispositions to disease (unhealthy foods).52
2001—The National Institute of Health conducts a clinical
study of 3,234 pre-diabetic people with two treatment protocols.
Diet and exercise prevented 58 percent of people from advancing
to diabetes, while the drug Metformin only prevented 31 percent
of people in their group from advancing to full diabetes. The
natural approach is nearly twice as effective.53
2006—Dr. David Eddy releases his report on the efficacy of
conventional medical treatments. His findings reported in a
Business Week article entitled “Medical Guesswork” reveal that
conventional medicine does not have good scientific evidence
for 75–80 percent of what they do.54
2009—Mark Hyman, M.D. testifies before the U.S. Senate
hearing on the Take Back Your Health Act and declares, “You
will not solve the current healthcare crisis if you just try to do
the wrong things better.”55
2010—The Institute of Medicine reports in the Wall Street
Journal article that a holistic approach to healthcare that uses
the best of conventional medicine, along with alternative
therapies, such as meditation, yoga, acupuncture and herbal
medicines, has been scientifically documented to be medically,
as well as cost, effective.56
2013—In the British medical journal Lancet Oncology, a large
study found that diet (plant-based), yoga, meditation and
lifestyle changes were able to stop or reverse diseases, such
as hypertension, obesity, diabetes, heart disease and prostate
2014—The Cleveland Clinic announces that Mark Hyman,
M.D. will help them to move towards the use of Functional
Medicine in the prevention and treatment of chronic diseases.
Their CEO, Delos Cosgrove, announced that this dramatic shift
away from conventional medicine was based on the fact that
Functional Medicine is the medicine of the future. (Functional
Medicine is based on the identification of the root cause of
disease and the use of natural approaches when possible to
prevent and treat these causes.)58
Barriers to Nutritional Awareness
In spite of the many scientific breakthroughs, clarifying the impact nutrition can have on our health, we do not seem to be
using this knowledge very well. Consider a recent report titled
the “National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey” that
examined the dietary behavior of 17,311 people. They found that
very few people had a truly healthy diet. About 80 to 90 percent
of people in each age and gender group had serious nutritional
Perhaps that is why the Centers for Disease Control now
calculates that nearly 60 percent of adults have a chronic
disease. In 1960, only 10 percent of the population was
chronically ill. This may also be the reason that the CDC
calculates that children born after the year 2000 will be the first
generation ever that will not live as long as their parents. And,
The Economist estimates that the U.S. will spend 100 percent of
its GNP on health care by the year 2065.60
People are not eating as well as they think they are, and
breaking these unhealthy eating habits has proven to be one
of the most difficult challenges facing our country. Here are
some of the commonly reported solutions to improving eating
patterns in the U.S.:
- Take the responsibility for the Food Pyramid away from the USDA. The agency that is responsible for promoting the food industry, which includes meat, dairy, sugar and wheat, should not be responsible for setting dietary guidelines.61
- Create more distance between the USDA and the School Lunch Program. Students should not be the dumping place for excess meat, dairy, sugar and wheat. School lunch nutritional standards should be increased considerably and should follow the guidelines set by Physicians Committee For Responsible Medicine.62
- All food stores should be required to label foods based on their nutritional value. Some stores have done this on a voluntary basis and use a program called Guiding Stars. There are other similar programs such as Nutripoints, NuVal and Nutrition IQ and all food stores should be required to adopt one of these programs.
- There should be limits established for the percentage of calories allowed from fat and sugar. Guidelines have been recommended in several books and reports and legislation should be passed that establishes healthy limits on sugar and fat.
- All doctors should be required to take a certified program on nutrition so they can incorporate dietary recommendations into all of their protocols.
- Hospitals should provide nutritional guidelines for every mother giving birth in their facility. This should greatly reduce the scientifically documented illnesses and diseases caused by nutritional deficiencies. If we do not reach mothers on this subject, we will never change our eating patterns.
- Every school should be required to provide nutrition education to every student, as well as courses for parents to take in the evening. This is not a frill; it is an urgent priority.
- Food must become more nutritious. Farmers should be required to replace all of the lost nutrition from the soil and use fewer chemical fertilizers and pesticides. There are many other changes possible to improve the eating behavior and the health of our population, but these would be a good beginning. We should establish specific goals to reverse childhood obesity, the incidence of diabetes and other chronic diseases by a specific date in the future. We know that 80 percent of all illness is preventable, and yet our current health system only spends 5 percent on prevention. This must change now or we will reap the dis-benefits of a continually increasingly sick population and a healthcare system that will bankrupt our country in the near future.63
Summary of Scientific Breakthroughs
It has taken over 2,400 years to get back to Hippocrates’
statement that food should be our medicine. And, the journey
has not been an easy one for the many scientists and doctors
who have had to endure threats and abuse from those who
supported the treatment of symptoms, rather than the causes
of chronic disease. At this point in time, the truth and good
science seems to be winning this war of words and the shift in
medical treatment to a more evidence-based natural approach.
Hopefully people can finally start to take full advantage of the
powerful nutritional and natural prevention and treatment
therapies that have been developed over the past 100 years,
and begin to reverse a very serious national disaster.
- “Breeding the Nutrition Out of Our Food,” Jo Robinson, May 25, 2013, The New York Times.
- “Vitamin-less Vegetables,” Terri Mitchell, Sep; 2005. Life Extension. and “Is Conventional Produce Declining in Nutritional Value,” March 2001, Life Extension.
- “Has Your Food Changed Over the Past 100 Years?” Dr. Stoll, October 1, 2014, www.fullyalivetoday.com.
- “The Economic Impact of Farmland Loss: Implications of Low Density Urbanization and Urban Sprawl,” Gerhardus Schultink, Izuru Saizen and Lisa Szymecko, October 2007, Land Policy Institute.
- The Taste of War, Lizzie Collingham, The Penguin Press, New York, 2012.
- “Health Effects of Synthetic Fertilizer,” Department of Preventative Medicine Health, University of Iowa, American Journal of Public Health, 86(a):1289–96, 1996.
- “Pesticides in Food: What to Eat and What to Avoid,” Travis Walter Donovan, May 25, 2011, Huffington Post and “Effects of Pesticides,” March 7, 2014, Global Healing Center.
- “Great Depression,” Christina D. Romer, August 25, 2014, Encyclopedia Britannica.
- “How Has the Refrigerator Changed Our Lives?” Lydia King, May 2, 2014, www.ehow.com.
- “The Impact of Food Processing on the Nutritional Quality of Vitamins and Minerals,” Manja B. Reddy and Made Love, Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology, Volume 459, 1999, pp. 99–106.
- “You the Taxpayer are Funding the Agri Business Takeover of Our Food Supply,” Brian Shilhavy, Nov. 1, 2014, Health Impact News.
- Food and Healing, Annemarie Colbin, Ballantine Books, New York, July 12, 1986.
- Toxin Toxout, Bruce Laurie and Rick Smith, St. Martin’s Press, New York, 2013.
- What to Eat, Marion Nestle, North Point Press, New York, 2006.
- Food Politics, Marion Nestle, University of California Press, Berkeley, California, 2002.
- “Work Conditions and the Food Choice Coping Strategies of Employed Parents,” Devine, C.M., Farrell, T., Justran, M., Wethington,m E., C.A. (2009), Appetite, 52, 711–19.
- Food Fight, Kelly D. Brownell, Ph.D., Contemporary Books, New York, 2004.
- “Children’s’ Life Expectancy Being Cut Short by Obesity,” Pam Belluck, March 17, 2005, New York Times.
- Food Fight, Kelly D. Brownell, Ph.D. Contemporary Books, New York, 2004.
- What to Eat, Marion Nestle, North Point Press, New York, 2006.
- Is Food Fortification Necessary? A Historical Perspective, IFIC Foundation, June 24, 2014.
- “Nutrition,” Ellen B. Fung and Virginia A. Stallings, 2003 Encyclopedia of Food and Culture.
- Genetic Nutritioneering, Jeffrey Bland, Ph.D., Keats Publishing, 1998.
- “Life Extension Foundation,” Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia, Nov. 4, 2014.
- Dr. Dean Ornish’s Program for Reversing Heart Disease, Dean Ornish, M.D., Ballantine Books, New York, 1990.
- “Nutrition,” Ellen B. Fung and Virginia A. Stallings, 2003, Encyclopedia of Food and Culture.
- Prescription for Nutritional Healing, James Balch, M.D. and Phyllis Balch, CNC, Avery Publishing, New York, 1990.
- “Food, Nutrition and the Prevention of Cancer: A Global Perspective,” Nov. 2007, American Institute for Cancer Research and the World Cancer Research Fund.
- Genetic Nutritioneering, Jeffrey Bland, Ph.D., Keats Publishing, 1998.
- “Battling Diabetes With Diet and Exercise,” Michelle Andrews, October 10, 2008, U.S. News and World Report (Originally reported in the U.S. National Library of Medicine).
- “Disease Prevention and Treatment,” Melanie Seyala, Editor, Life Extension Media, Hollywood, Florida, 1997.
- “Medical Guesswork,” John Carey, May 29, 2006, P. 72, Business Week Magazine.
- U.S. Senate Committee on Health, Education, Labor and Business Integrative Care: A Pathway to a Healthier Nation, September 26, 2009.
- Integrative Medicine to Tackle the Problem of Chronic Disease, Rustum Roy, Journal of Ayurvedic Integrated Medicine, 2010, Jan.-Mar; (1);18-31. (Also reported in the Wall Street Journal).
- “Healthy Lifestyle May Reverse Cellular Aging, Study Suggests,” Dennis Thompson, Healthday, Sep. 16, 2013 (Originally from September online issue of The Lancet Oncology).
- “Cleveland Clinic Gets “Functional,” Erik Goldman, Holistic Primary Care, Vol. 15: No. 3, p.1, Fall 2014.
- Study: “Most Americans have poor nutrition and consume foods low in nutritional value,” Oct. 27, 2010, Journal of Nutrition.
- “Patient, heal thyself,” March 17, 2011, The Economist. (Quote in article by Sir John Oldman, British National Health Service)
- Eat, Drink and Be Healthy, Walter Willett, M.D., Simon and Schuster, 2001.
- Best Practice Guide for Increasing Plant-Based Options in the National School Lunch Program, Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine, July 2014.
- “Patient, heal thyself,” March 17, 2011, The Economist.